Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in DSM-5 (APA, 2013).
Autistic Spectrum Disorders Definition
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition associated with the development of brain disorders on the part of social interaction and communication of the sufferer. ASD includes a variety of conditions such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, as well as a condition that has not been dispesification.
ASD can already be detected since childhood and may affect social life. For example, people will find it difficult to socialize at school or workplace. In most cases, children have been showing the symptoms of autism since the first year. Some children look normal in the first year of life, and are just beginning to show symptoms of autism at the age of 18 – 24 months.
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is the term first used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM-5) which was released in May 2013. The diagnosis includes several diagnoses of DSM-IV TR, which is autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, disintegrative disorder of childhood, and PDD-NOS.
In the diagnostic criteria of autistic spectrum disorders in DSM-5, social communication and social interactions were no longer separate as in DSM-IV TR, but incorporated into one category.
Autistic Spectrum Disorders List
ASD is a term for various diseases related to developmental disorders. The conditions included in this spectrum include autism, Asperger syndrome, Heller syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders (PPD-NOS).
There are several autistic spectrum disorders:
Autism with the difficulties of social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communication, behave in repeat and obsessive interests, such as the constant interest in dinosaurs, continuously and constantly repeated.
The initial speaking skills were held down and vocabulary was limited. Often have an interest in certain topics over a long period of time. They always had a limited ritual, difficulty with intercourse and awkward.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Characterized by normal development in the early age, then experienced a significant loss in the areas of social skills, language and physical skills. Sometimes it also happens to be mentally retarded.
Rett syndrome relates to the X chromosome. A gene mutation occurs that causes death in a male baby at birth. In girls, it initially grew normally until the age of 18 months, then experienced even setbacks, especially in the field of language skills and hand use.
Physical therapy, speech and work can be given to help overcome the problems of coordination, motion and speech.
This condition is diagnosed when there are some symptoms of autism, but there are no other specific symptoms. This type is a type of autism that is lighter than classic autism.
Autistic Spectrum Disorders Symptoms
To meet the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders, individuals should exhibit two types of symptoms, namely:
A child or older persons with autistic spectrum disorders may have problems with social interaction and communication skills, as follows:
- Failing to respond when called doesn’t seem to listen at all.
- Refused to be embraced and held, and seemed to prefer to play alone in his own world.
- Don’t like eye contact and show a flat facial expression.
- Don’t speak or talk with a slow rhythm
- Can’t start a conversation or keep a conversation, or just talk when you’re asking for something.
- Speak with a tone or rhythm that is abnormal and can use singing sound or flat sound like a robot.
- Repeat a word or phrase, but don’t understand how to use it.
- It doesn’t seem to understand simple questions or referrals.
- It does not reveal emotions or feelings and seems unaware of the feelings of others.
- It will not see straight objects when someone else points towards that object.
- Social interactions by being passive, aggressive or disturbing.
- Has difficulty recognizing nonverbal cues, such as interpreting other people’s facial expressions, posture or tone of voice.
A child or older persons with autistic spectrum disorders may have a limited behavioral pattern, interest, or repetitive activity, as follows:
- Perform repetitive movements, such as shaking or spinning.
- Doing activities that could be harmful to themselves, such as biting or banging the head.
- Develop a specific routine or ritual and become disturbed at the slightest change.
- Having problems with coordination or having a pattern of movement is strange and has body language that is strange, rigid or exaggerated.
- Fascinated by the details of an object, such as wheels spinning from a toy car, but not understanding the purpose or overall functioning of the object.
- It is very sensitive to light, sound or touch, but may not be sensitive to pain or temperature.
- Have certain dietary preferences, such as eating only a little food, or rejecting food with a particular texture.
When they’re older, some children with autistic spectrum disorders become more involved with social interactions.
They will show fewer symptoms in behavior.
Some, usually those with the most severe problems, can eventually lead to normal life or close to normal.
However, others continue to have difficulties with language or social skills, and adolescence can bring about poorer behavioral and emotional problems.
Signs of autistic spectrum disorders often appear at the beginning of development when there are delays in language skills and social interactions.
The doctor may recommend a developmental test to identify whether the child has a delay in cognitive, language and social skills, if your child:
- Not responding with a smile or happy expression at the age of 6 months
- Not mimic voice or facial expressions at the age of 9 months
- Do not raving or whisper at the age of 12 months
- No cue-like dots or waves-14 months old
- Not say a word at the age of 16 months
- Not saying two-word phrases in the age of 24 months
- Loss of language skills or social skills at any age
Thank you very much for reading Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Definition, List, and Symptoms, hopefully useful.