Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in DSM-5 (APA, 2013).
Autistic Spectrum Disorders Definition
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition associated with the development of brain disorders on the part of social interaction and communication of the sufferer. ASD includes a variety of conditions such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, as well as a condition that has not been dispesification.
ASD can already be detected since childhood and may affect social life. For example, people will find it difficult to socialize at school or workplace. In most cases, children have been showing the symptoms of autism since the first year. Some children look normal in the first year of life, and are just beginning to show symptoms of autism at the age of 18 – 24 months.
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is the term first used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM-5) which was released in May 2013. The diagnosis includes several diagnoses of DSM-IV TR, which is autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, disintegrative disorder of childhood, and PDD-NOS.
In the diagnostic criteria of autistic spectrum disorders in DSM-5, social communication and social interactions were no longer separate as in DSM-IV TR, but incorporated into one category.
Autistic Spectrum Disorders List
ASD is a term for various diseases related to developmental disorders. The conditions included in this spectrum include autism, Asperger syndrome, Heller syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders (PPD-NOS).
There are several autistic spectrum disorders:
Autism with the difficulties of social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communication, behave in repeat and obsessive interests, such as the constant interest in dinosaurs, continuously and constantly repeated.
The initial speaking skills were held down and vocabulary was limited. Often have an interest in certain topics over a long period of time. They always had a limited ritual, difficulty with intercourse and awkward.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Characterized by normal development in the early age, then experienced a significant loss in the areas of social skills, language and physical skills. Sometimes it also happens to be mentally retarded.
Rett syndrome relates to the X chromosome. A gene mutation occurs that causes death in a male baby at birth. In girls, it initially grew normally until the age of 18 months, then experienced even setbacks, especially in the field of language skills and hand use.
Physical therapy, speech and work can be given to help overcome the problems of coordination, motion and speech.
This condition is diagnosed when there are some symptoms of autism, but there are no other specific symptoms. This type is a type of autism that is lighter than classic autism.
Autistic Spectrum Disorders Symptoms
To meet the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders, individuals should exhibit two types of symptoms, namely:
Behavioral and communication disorders
However, almost all autistic children have difficulty communicating and adjusting in their social environment.
To be clear, here are the traits of autism in children and adults in general, according to the CDC.
- Not pointing at a particular object as a sign of interest in something, such as pointing at an airplane above because it is interested in the means of transportation.
- Not see anything that someone else has pointed at.
- Difficulty connecting, talking, or playing with others, or showing no interest in people.
- Avoid eye contact with others or a tendency to be alone.
- It’s hard to understand other people’s feelings or express their feelings.
- They’d rather not be hugged, unless they wanted to.
- Like not realizing if anyone is talking to him and tends to respond to other voices.
- Frequently repeat words or phrases while speaking, including the words of the interlocutor (echolalia).
- It is difficult to express his needs in words or gestures.
- Not doing “pretend” games, such as not pretending to feed dolls when children play dolls.
- Often make repetitive movements.
- It’s hard to adapt when routines change.
- Has an unusual reaction to smell, taste, look, feeling, or sound.
- Children lose skills they once had, such as stopping saying the words they once used.
There may be signs and symptoms not mentioned above. If you have concerns about a particular symptom, consult your doctor immediately.
When they’re older, some children with autistic spectrum disorders become more involved with social interactions.
They will show fewer symptoms in behavior.
Some, usually those with the most severe problems, can eventually lead to normal life or close to normal.
However, others continue to have difficulties with language or social skills, and adolescence can bring about poorer behavioral and emotional problems.
Signs of autistic spectrum disorders often appear at the beginning of development when there are delays in language skills and social interactions.
The doctor may recommend a developmental test to identify whether the child has a delay in cognitive, language and social skills, if your child:
- Not responding with a smile or happy expression at the age of 6 months
- Not mimic voice or facial expressions at the age of 9 months
- Do not raving or whisper at the age of 12 months
- No cue-like dots or waves-14 months old
- Not say a word at the age of 16 months
- Not saying two-word phrases in the age of 24 months
- Loss of language skills or social skills at any age
Thank you very much for reading Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Definition, List, and Symptoms, hopefully useful.