Beta Blockers For Hypertension: Usage, and Classifications – Beta blockers are one of the most important medicines in the field of cardiovascular. How important, until the invention of the first generation beta blocker (propanolol) was rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1988.
Beta-blockers are drugs that are used to handle a variety of conditions in the heart. Beta blockers are often called beta-adrenergic blocking agents whose main function is to lower blood pressure.
Read also: How To Prevent Hypertension in 8 Ways
Beta Blockers For Hypertension Usage
Beta blockers are commonly used to handle conditions, such as:
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Cardiac arrest (myocardial infarction)
- Heart failure
- Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
- Chest pain (angina)
- Specific tremor Type
- Excess thyroid hormone in the blood (hyperthyroidism)
Drugs from the beta blocker group work by suppressing the effect of the epinephrine or adrenaline hormone, which is a hormone that plays a role in blood flow, thereby making the heart beat slower and less work, as well as blood pressure down. In addition, the drug also helps dilate blood vessels so that blood circulation goes smoothly.
Currently there are many beta blockers that generally show the same effectiveness. However, there are differences between the various beta blockers, which will affect the choice in treating certain diseases or patients.
Some beta blockers (oxprenolol, pindolol, acebutolol) have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. These medications tend to be less cause bradycardia than other beta blockers, and may also cause less cold in the legs and hands.
Some beta blockers are soluble in fat and some are soluble in water. The most soluble in water is atenolol, nadolol, and Sotalol. Therefore, the beta blockers are difficult to enter the brain, resulting in less sleep disorders and nightmares. The water-soluble beta blocker are excreted by the kidneys and often required dose reduction in renal impairment.
Beta Blockers For Hypertension Classifications
In line, beta blockers are grouped into 5 major classes:
Non-selective beta blockers.
This is the most popular beta blockers, covering: Propanolol, timolol, Pindolol, Penbutolol and nadolol. As the name suggests (non-selective), it means that this class of beta blockers works by blocking the beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors
The pharmacodynamic nature of it becomes the very point of this class because it has more side effects. For example, the doctor wants to lower blood pressure and the patient’s heart rate (beta-1 receptor) coronary heart disease with propanolol.
Certainly administering propanolol will cause a lot of side effects, among them bronchospasm (beta-2 bronchus receptor), hyperglycemia (beta-2 pancreatic receptors), dyslipidemia. The fact is the basis for not administering propanolol in asthma or COPD patients, Diabetes Mellitus and dyslipidemia.
Cardioselective beta blockers.
As you might guess from its name, this drug class is a high affinity drug to the beta-1 receptors in the heart. The logical implications, this class of beta blockers have fewer side effects than the non-selective beta blockers. This class Beta blockers include Atenolol, Acebutolol, Bisoprolol, Jesmololom and metoprolol.
Among the various medications above, bisoprolol is the most selective. In addition, it can inhibit the production of FT3, so it can be given to patients with hyperthyroid. However, although in theory is cardioselective, giving in large doses can also block beta-2 receptors and cause side effects.
Beta blockers with membrane stabilizing activity:
This type Beta blockers have a local anesthetic effect (e.g. quinidine), so it can be used for tachyarrhythmia patients.
Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA).
This Beta blocker can be used for patients who are at a low resting heart rate, but have increased sharply when its activity. This is because this type of drug can activate (agonist) Beta adrenoreceptor when sympathetic activity decreases, but it is blocking the beta adrenoceptors when the sympathetic nerve activity increases. The remedy, for example, is Acebutolol.
Third generation Beta blockers.
This type of Beta blockers in addition to having the effect of blocking 1 alpha adrenoreceptor in arteries, including: Carvedilol, Bucindolol, Labetalol, Bevantolol and Nipradilol. This class of drug groups that have the effect of producing NO (Nitrite Oxide) so as to induce vasodilation of blood vessels, including: Nebivolol, Celiprolol, Carteolol. Carvedilol attracts a lot of clinical attention because it also has the effect of blockade of calcium canals and antioxidants.
These drugs often have antihypertensive effects and improved ventricular function in heart failure.
Beta Blockers For Hypertension Video Explanation
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