The client-centered approach, its own unique approach to understanding human personality and relationships, finds broad applications in a variety of domains such as psychotherapy and counseling (client centered therapy), student-centered learning, organization, and other group settings.
Client Centered Therapy Definition
Client-Centered Therapy is often also called non directive psychotherapy which is a psychic treatment method that is done by means of dialogue between counselors and clients, in order to achieve a harmonious picture between the ideal self (ideal client self) and actual self (the client’s self according to the actual reality).
Client Centered Therapy History
Client-Centered Therapy was developed by psychologist Dr. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) in 1940s. This type of therapy deviates from the traditional view of therapists as experts and moves instead toward the non-directive approach embodied by the theory of trend actualization. The theory says to embody human tendencies has the potential to discover the realization of their own personal abilities.
The psychological environment described by Rogers is one in which a person feels free from threats, both physical and psychic. This environment can be achieved when in a relationship with a person who understands (empathy), accepts (has unconditional positives) and is original (congruent).
Basic concepts of client centered therapy
Person-centered theory is built on two basic hypotheses, namely:
- Everyone has the capacity to understand the circumstances that cause unhappiness and to reorganate his life for the better
- A person’s ability to deal with these circumstances may occur and be enhanced if the counselor creates warmth, acceptance, and can understand the relationship (counseling process) that are being built.
Goals of Client Centered Therapy
Rogers (1980) provides an explanation, according to the logic that when a person feels for himself that they are valued and accepted unconditionally, they realize that maybe for the first time they can be loved. Thus, the purpose of person-centered therapy is to make one’s clients appreciate and accept themselves and to have an unconditional positive acceptance of themselves.
The basic purpose of client centered services is as follows:
Openness to experience
Openness to experience needs to look at reality without changing its careful empathy and with efforts to understand the client’s internal reference, the therapist pay attention primarily to the client’s self-perception and perception of the world.
Belief in the organism itself
One of the goals of therapy is to help clients in building confidence in themselves. In the early stages of therapy, the client’s confidence in himself and his own decisions was very small. They typically seek advice and answers from outside because basically they don’t trust him to direct his own life.
Internal evaluation site
The place of internal evaluation related to his confidence, is more looking for answers to himself for his problems of existence. He set standards of conduct and looked into himself in making decisions and choices for his life.
Willingness to be a process
The concept of self in the process of becoming, which is the opposite of the concept of self as a product, is very important. While it may be possible to undergo therapy for a kind of formula to build it up and be happy, they become aware that growth is an ongoing process.
Client Centered Therapy Techniques
There are no specific methods or techniques. Because Client-Centered Therapy focus on the attitudes of therapists. But there are some basic techniques that therapists must have: actively listen to clients, reflect on the client’s feelings, and then explain them.
The emphasis on techniques in this approach is on the personality, beliefs, and attitudes of the therapist, as well as its relation to therapeutics. Within the framework of client centered, its “techniques” are the disclosure and communication of acceptance, respect and understanding as well as share efforts with clients in developing internal terms of reference of thinking, feeling and exploring.
The Period of Development of Client Centered Hart Therapy (1970) divided the development of Rogers theory into three periods, namely:
- Period 1 (1940-1950): Non-directive psychotherapy, which emphasized the creation of permissive and non-directive climates. Acceptance and clarification as a technique.
- Period 2 (1950-1957): Reflective psychotherapy. The therapist reflects the feelings of the client and avoids threats in relation to the client. The client is expected to be able to develop harmony between self concept and ideal self concept.
- Period 3 (1957-1970); Experiential therapy. The therapist’s extensive behavior that reveals his basic attitudes marks this approach. Therapists focus on what the client is going through and the disclosure by the therapist. Since the last 30s years, client centered therapy has shifted toward bringing more personality therapists into the therapeutic process.