The sensitivity of our skin will react when the body experiences an infection or allergies of certain medications. One of the skin reactions that can be triggered from various things such as allergies, infections or certain vaccinations, known as erythema multiforme. What kind of its?
Erythema Multiforme (EM) is an abnormality in the skin characterized by characteristic lesions of the skin, which also accompanied by skin abnormalities in the mucous area of the lips.
The lesions of the EM have a distinctive shape, consisting of three zones with contrasting colors, spreading to certain parts of the body, and it can be a rise or sink. The center zone is spotted or resilient that has an eye resembles a purplish red-colored target circle. The outer zone is pale in color and the outer zone has an older color. In dark skin, the surface of the lesions is darker in color.
Erythema Multiforme Causes
A multiform erythema is a type of hypersensitivity reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions occur when the immune system reacts mistakenly or excessively to the exposure of certain substances or conditions. The main cause can not be ensured.
Although the cause is not yet certain, multiform erythema are generally triggered by infections, medications, or exposure to certain chemicals. Some of the types of infections that can trigger a multiform erythema, are:
- Viruses, such as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, varicella zoster, parapoxvirus, adenovirus, hepatitis, HIV, or cytomegalovirus
- Bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Treponema pallidum, or Mycobacterium avium complex
- Fungi, such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides, or dermatophytes
- Parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii or Trichomonas.
In some cases, erythema multiforme is triggered by the use of certain medications, such as:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
- Anticonvulsant or anticonvulsant drugs, such as phenytoin
- Phenothiazine drugs
- Sulfonamide, penicillin or nitrofurantoin antibiotics
- Certain vaccines, such as BCG, polio, tetanus, or diphtheria
Erythema Multiforme Symptoms
The most common symptoms of erythema multiforme include:
- Itchy skin
- The joints are noticed
- Embossed skin lesions; Spread Can be shaped like a star, a small pimple, or hives; The nodules can have eyes that are surrounded by red circles (like the target circles); Containing water of various sizes; Most commonly found in the upper body, legs, arms, palms, hands and feet, upon the lips or in the face; Symmetrical star size.
Other signs and symptoms include:
- Dry eyes
- Eyes itch, burn, ooze
- Pain in the mouth
- Vision Disorders
There may be signs and symptoms not mentioned above. Doctors can immediately diagnose erythema multiforme through its characteristic traits, but they can refer you to a dermatologist for a more accurate diagnosis.
When you have concerns about a certain symptom, consult it with your doctor.
Diagnosis of Erythema multiforme
To diagnose Multiformist erythema, the doctor will usually conduct medical interviews, physical examinations directly, and certain supporting examinations when needed.
On a physical examination, the doctor will evaluate the size, shape, color, and distribution of the skin rash. Doctors can perform skin biopsies when needed, to exclude other possible causes. Some other examinations can also be done to determine the presence of other infections often associated with multiform erythema, such as Mycoplasma (one type of bacteria).
Complications of erythema multiform
In some cases, this disease can cause complications, such as poisoning the blood (septicemia), as it shock (when blood pressure decreases to the lowest level), skin infections (cellulite), permanent skin damage, permanent eye damage, and inflammation of the body organs such as the liver and lungs.
Erythema Multiforme Treatment
The treatment of erythema multiform is aimed at addressing the underlying causes of the condition, relieving symptoms, and preventing skin infections. The Doctor will recommend:
- The cessation of any medications that may trigger symptoms
- Antihistamines and moisturizing creams to reduce itching
- Steroid creams to reduce redness and swelling
- Pain relievers
- Antiviral tablets if the cause is a viral infection
- Anesthetic mouthwash to relieve discomfort in mouth sores.
In more serious cases, treatment can be done in the hospital by:
- More robust painkillers
- Bind wounds to prevent wounds from becoming infected
- Soft or liquid Diet if the wound in the mouth is heavy
- Steroid tablets, to stop inflammation
- Antibiotics, if there is a bacterial infection
- Eye drops or ointments if the eye is affected
When should consult a physician?
Meet the Doctor immediately if you suspect yourself or your child suffers from a multiform erythema. A physician or skin specialist will diagnose your condition by looking at the rash. If Erythema multiforme Major is suspected, you will be immediately referred to the hospital as this condition is serious.