Definition, Types, and Etiology Of Hypertension

By | October 19, 2019
Etiology Of Hypertension

In this article we will discuss about Definition, Types, and Etiology Of Hypertension.

Definition of Hypertension

Hypertension is a state of increased blood pressure that will persist for a target organ such as stroke (for the brain), coronary heart disease (for blood vessels) and left ventricle hypertrophy (for the heart muscle). With the target organ in the brain in the form of stroke, hypertension is the main cause of stroke that carries a high mortality.

The term hypertension is taken from the English “Hypertension”. The word Hypertension itself comes from the Latin, “hyper” meaning super or extraordinary and “tension” which means pressure or tension. Hypertension is finally a medical term that is a high blood pressure disease. It is also known as High Blood Pressure. Blood pressure is the energy used by the blood that is pumped from the heart to resist blood resistance.

In other words blood pressure is a number of energy needed to circulate the blood throughout the body. If a person’s blood pressure increases sharply and then remains high, the person can be said to have high blood pressure or hypertension.

Hypertension is a disease with a variety of medical conditions.
In most patients the etiology pathophysiology is unknown (essential or primary hypertension). Primary hypertension is not curable but can be controlled.

Other groups of low-percentage populations have a specific cause, known as secondary hypertension. Many causes of secondary hypertension; Endogenous and exogenous. When the causes of secondary hypertension can be identified, hypertension in these patients can be cured potentially.

The etiology of hypertension is the most common renovascular disease. If there is no secondary cause, the hypertension is classified as essential hypertension.

Read also: Isolated systolic hypertension: The causes and How to treat it.

Based on the cause, hypertension can be grouped into two groups, namely:

Types of Hypertension based on the cause

Based on the cause, hypertension can be grouped into 2 groups, namely:

Primary hypertension (essential)

More than 90% patients with hypertension are essential hypertension (primary hypertension). Other literature says, the essential hypertension is 95% of all cases of hypertension. Some of the mechanisms that may contribute to this hypertension have been identified, but not a single theory that expressly states the pathogenesis of the primary hypertension.

Hypertension is often hereditary in a family, it is at least shown that genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension.

Secondary hypertension

Less than 10% of patients with hypertension are secondary to comorbid diseases or certain medications that can increase blood pressure, such as corticosteroid-type drugs, NSAIDS, and estrogen. In most cases, renal dysfunction due to chronic kidney disease or renovascular disease is the most frequent secondary cause.

Read also: How To Prevent Hypertension in 8 Ways

Etiology of Hypertension

Etiology Of Hypertension - definition

The etymology of hypertension is not clearly known. Many factors are due to the etiology of hypertension. The etiology of hypertension can only be established about 10-15% in patients who come for treatment. Hypertension is a disease that occurs in blood pressure. Hypertension is characterized by high blood pressure so hypertension is called as a disease of high blood pressure.

The etiology of hypertension is very important to consider because it will relate to the action or treatment of patients with hypertension. 

Genetic factors are considered important as the cause of hypertension. This assumption is supported by many studies on experimental animals and in humans. Genetic factors seem to be multifactorial due to defects in some genes that act on the regulatng of blood pressure.

Environmental factors are the most important factor in the emergence of hypertension. These factors include excessive salt intake, obesity, occupational, alco**holism, psychogenic environmental stressors and shelter. More and more people are exposed to these factors, the more likely a person suffers from hypertension, as well as a person’s age.

From the factors mentioned above, no one is defined as the direct cause of essential hypertension. 

Another case with secondary hypertension, which has been found a lot of direct causes, some of which are: sleep apnea, drug-induced or drug-related hypertension, chronic kidney disease, Primary aldosteronism, Renovascular disease, long-term steroid therapy and Cushing’s syndrome.

Read also: 13 Harmful Effects of Hypertension.

Etiology of Secondary Hypertension

CausesPrevalence
Renovascular disease5%-34%
Obstructive sleep apnea25-50%
Primary aldosteronism8-20%
HT is drug or alco**hol induced2-4%
Hyperthyroidism<1%
Pheochromocytoma0,1%-0,6%
Cushing’s syndrome<0,1%