Fungal Infection in Lungs or Pulmonary mycosis are pulmonary disorders (including airways) caused by infection, colonization of fungi, as well as hypersensitive reactions to fungi.
In general pulmonary mycosis was found in patients who had previously had chronic pulmonary disease as a basic disease.
The most commonly reported pulmonary mycosis is aspergillosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcosis, histoplamosis and candidiasis.
Generally fungi attack the skin, but in fact the fungus is also the cause of infections in the lungs. In fact, the number of cases tends to increase.
Air fungus, particularly Aspergillus, is a major cause of pulmonary mycosis as well as airway allergic diseases.
Fungal infections in lungs are caused by the inhalation of mold spores that exist in the environment, then enter into the human respiratory system. Mold spores in very small size can come from a room that is not clean and damp and not exposed to sunlight.
Aspergillus species are fungi commonly found in organic matter. Although there are more than 100 species, the type that can cause disease in humans is Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus which are all transmitted to inhalation transmission.
Generally Aspergillus will infect the lungs. Aspergillus can cause many diseases in humans, it could be due to hypersensitivity reactions or direct invasion.
In people with prime immune system, the fungus will not cause any impact. But for people with imperfect endurance like toddlers, or immunity that starts to diminish like the elderly, a yeast infection can cause a bad impact.
Moreover, if the person has had chronic diseases, such as diabetes, stroke, cancer, or HIV.
Fungal infection in lungs or pulmonary mycosis are part of systemic mycosis of pulmonary disorders and/or airway disorder caused by infections, colonization by fungi, or hypersensitive reactions to fungi.
An asthma patient that is not controlled by standard treatment, should also be examined for the possibility of allergic fungus disease, namely allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS).
If there is a risk factor that facilitates the fungus to enter the lung or systemic tissue, for example, chronic pulmonary disease, then there can be a reaction of inflammation or infection that then causes various complaints or symptoms
Fungal Infection in Lungs Symptoms
A cough never cured is a symptom that is often complained of by patients when they come to the doctor. But often times early suspicion leads to TB or other bacterial infections.
After the treatment of TB or antibiotics did not work, then the doctor suspected a fungal infection,
Pulmonary fungal infections (mycosis) include parts of systemic mycosis. This disease is still not too much attention, even in medical circles. In the past, it was assumed that fungal infections rarely inflict serious interference. In fact, the case of systemic mycosis is not too much encountered.
Suspicion of possible fungal infections
The main key in establishing the diagnosis of pulmonary mycosis is a suspicion of possible fungal infections, especially based on the risk factor anamnesis and underlying disease.
Based on a physical examination of the lung mycosis is difficult to distinguish from other lung diseases because the symptoms are not typical.
Radiological examination is a chest photo and chest CT scan. The picture of the chest photo of most lung mycosis does not show any characteristic. A distinctive depiction can be seen in the aspect of the fungus ball in the cavities.
Routine laboratory tests
Routine laboratory tests allegedly associated with pulmonary mycosis are an increase in the number of eosinophils.
Laboratory methods for diagnosing pulmonary mycosis are conducted through: microscopic examination, isolation and identification of fungi in the culture and the detection of serological responses to fungi and their marking.
The type of the inspected material can be a bronchopulmonary secretions (sputum, bronchus rinse), aspirate material (from the lungs, glands or other substances), biopsy tissues, blood, pleural fluid, pus, etc.
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