Knee replacement surgery is a medical procedure done by replacing a broken knee joint with a prosthetic joint. The goal is to relieve pain and restore the function of the knee joint, so that the patient can still use his knees as usual.
The knee joint may suffer damage from injury or inflammation, which may inhibit the patient from conducting daily activities.
Knee joints can be damaged due to various reasons, such as:
- Other types of arthritis,
- Degenerative diseases (called osteoarthritis),
- Injury or fracture experienced.
Damaged knee joints will cause pain in the knee when doing activities, such as walking, climbing stairs, sitting, or lying down.
Read also: How To Prevent Runner’s Knee
Knee Replacement Surgery Types
There are 4 types of knee replacement surgery:
Total knee replacement
Total knee replacement is the most common type of knee replacement in which the entire knee is replaced including the surface of the thigh and the shin that connects the knee. New implanted cemented or bone surfaces that face the implant is changed in texture or coated in such a way that forms natural bones by encouraging bone growth.
Total Knee Replacement (TKR) or whole bone replacement is an effective solution that can be considered if experiencing knee pain and deformity due to osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid or Post-traumatic Arthritis. TKR is one of the most common orthopedic surgeries done around the world and can lead to a dramatic increase in the quality of life of the patient.
With the TKR method, the worn knee surface is taken and replaced by metal or plastic components via an incision at the front of the knee.
Younger patients or those experiencing localized pain in the knee joint may be suitable for Uni-compartmental Knee Replacement. This surgery can be done using a robot.
Read also: Joint Pain Causes, and Symptoms
Partial knee replacement
Partial knee replacement, also known as a unicondylar knee replacement, involves the procedure where only the affected part of the knee is replaced. In this case, the anterior and posterior ligaments are retained. As a result, hospitalization and recovery periods are shorter.
Replacement of the kneecap is also known as patellofemoral arthroplasty. In this procedure, the replacement is limited only to the knee patella and the indentation of the femur that lean on the patella. This is also done through a smaller incision, thus having a shorter recovery period.
Complex or revision knee replacement.
Complex or revision knee replacement involves replacing the pre-installed knee implant, which has lost its function. This may occur due to bone loss or the development of scar tissue over time. This type of surgery is more complex than normal knee replacement.
Before undergoing knee replacement surgery, the patient will first undergo non-surgical treatment. The treatment can be given medication or the provision of a buffer tool to help the patient to use his knee. If the method of non-surgical treatment has been ineffective in alleviating pain and alleviating complaints, patients can undergo knee replacement surgery. The doctor will inform the patient when they can undergo the procedure.
The patient’s knee joint that has been damaged will be replaced using a prosthetic joint made of metallic material. Through the knee replacement surgery, the doctor will replace the tip of the femur, the shin, the calf bone, and the kneecap bone with the prosthetic. Patients undergoing this procedure are usually elderly patients or patients suffering from severe arthritis.
How is the knee replacement surgery done?
Knee replacement surgery replaces the joints of the affected patient with artificial prosthesis. These prosthesis will be planted on the patient’s knee permanently.
The main purpose of this surgery is to reduce pain and correct the deformities that occur. This action can then improve the patient’s quality of life and allow them to live a more active life.
Various scientific studies have shown that knee replacement is effective for improving a person’s quality of life and age is not an obstacle to determining the success of surgery. Also, the ability to re-engage in sports activities such as morning run, swimming, golf, and tennis is very possible, depending on the condition of each patient.