Oral cancer is cancer that occurs in the walls of the mouth, lips, tongue, gums, or palate. Oral cancer can also occur in tissues in the throat (pharynx) and salivary glands.
Oral cancer is caused by the growth of abnormal tissue in the mouth. Symptoms of oral cancer that are generally felt are canker sores that do not heal, appear white or red patches, and pain in the mouth.
Oral cancer treatment methods can be radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and targeted drug therapy. The cure rate of oral cancer patients depends on the stage of the cancer suffered and their health condition.
Types of Oral cancer
There are many types of cells in the oral cavity of the throat, so the types of cancer are divided into several types, including:
- Squamous cell carcinoma. More than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, which attack flat cells lining the mouth and throat.
- Verrucous carcinoma. Less than 5% of oral cancers are slow-growing verrucous carcinomas that rarely attack other parts of the body. This type of cancer can from squamous cell carcinoma that gets worse.
- Other types of cancer. This type of cancer of minor salivary gland carcinoma and lymphoma is a type of oral cancer that is quite rare. This cancer forms in glands in the lining of the mouth and throat, tonsils, and the base of the tongue.
Oral cancer symptoms
Most cases of oral cancer that occur is a type of squamous cell carcinoma that will usually spread quickly. Unfortunately, just like any other type of cancer, many people do not feel any significant symptoms. As a result, most cases are detected when they are advanced.
For this reason, recognizing the symptoms of oral cancer is important. Oral cancer has major symptoms and additional symptoms.
The main symptoms of oral cancer
The main symptom of oral cancer is changes that occur in oral tissue. Here are some of the main characteristics of oral cancer:
- Canker sores or reddish or white patches on the mouth, tongue or gums, which do not heal for more than 2 weeks
- Canker sores accompanied by bleeding in the mouth
- Lumps or thickening appears on the wall in the mouth
- Teeth shake without knowing the cause.
Not only changes that occur in oral tissue, this cancer triggers other additional symptoms such as:
- Numbness or pain in the mouth
- Difficulty swallowing and speaking
- Difficulty moving the jaw or tongue
- Pain or feeling uncomfortable and feeling something stuck in the back of the throat
- There are wounds on the face, neck, or mouth persistently, making it bleed easily. This condition does not heal in 2 weeks.
- Change the sound to hoarse
- Chronic sore throat
- Ear pain
- Weight loss
If you experience any of the symptoms above, you should immediately consult a dentist and oral specialist to get the right treatment.
Oral cancer diagnosis
Diagnosis is established based on a physical examination, and especially with a bimanual examination and a supporting examination such as a CT scan or MRI is needed. The exact diagnosis is based on histopathological examination.
How to prevent oral cancer disease
It is advisable to always maintain oral hygiene because of the history of neck and head cancer with the incidence of oral cavity cancer and the presence of a relationship with one’s oral hygiene, especially candidiasis in the oral cavity.
Oral Cancer Treatment
The management of tongue carcinoma includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and combinations.
When to see a doctor?
If there are wounds in the oral cavity that do not heal and get worse, or there are repeated oral infections, immediately see a doctor. To do the examination, you can immediately make an appointment with a doctor at the hospital of your choice.