The Types of Pediatric Sleep Disorders, and Normal Sleep Pattern and Needs – Sleep disorders in children and adolescents are a common condition. Poor quality and quantity of sleep in children often has an impact on other conditions ranging from behavior, development and social, weight disorders, to the learning process in school.
Obstructive sleep apnea, sleepwalking, restless leg syndrome are some of the sleep disorders that often occur in children. For the treatment of sleep disorders in children, a physical examination and health history of the child is required to evaluate the symptoms and diagnose sleep disorders.
According to health data published by American Family Physician, 50 percent of children will experience sleep problems. Symptoms can be seen from daytime drowsiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1–5 percent of children.
Normal sleep patterns for newborns
Newborns usually sleep for 16-20 hours, which are divided into 4-5 periods. The baby’s sleep pattern is still irregular, this can be due to many factors. But it will slowly shift so that more sleep time at night compared to during the day.
Normal sleep needs in children
- Age 1-4 months: 14 1/2 – 15 1/2 hours per day
- Age 4-12 months: 14 – 15 hours per day
- Age 1-3 years: 12 – 14 hours per day
- Age 3-6 years: 10 3/4 – 12 hours per day
- Age 7-12 years: 10 – 11 hours per day
- 12-18 years old: 8 1/4 – 9 1/2 hours per day.
These different baby bedtimes are often interpreted as various. It is said that parents are deprived of sleep, 2 hours every day until the baby is 5 months old. While from the age of 5 months to 2 years, old people lose 1 hour of sleep every night. So that parents also need to waste their bedtime in accordance with the baby’s sleep pattern.
Some baby groups from the age of 3 months the baby begins to sleep more nights than during the day. At the age of 3-6 months the number of naps is decreasing, approximately 3 times and continues to decrease up to 2 times in infants aged 6-12 months. By the age of 1 year he usually only needs to take a nap once with the total amount of sleep time ranging from 12-14 hours.
Types of pediatric sleep disorders
Some sleep disorders that can occur in children, among others:
Night waking is defined as waking and crying once or more between midnight and 5:00 a.m. Night waking occurs at least 4 nights a week, and 4 weeks a month. Approximately 25% of these sleep disorders occur in infants between the ages of 6 months and 12 months.
Night terrors (Pavor Nocturn)
Night terrors is one of Pediatric Sleep Disorders. Night terrors generally occur in children aged 18 months to 5 years. Night terrors are the condition of a sleeping child and then suddenly sitting, screaming, looking confused, disorientated, eyes wide open, and looking very frightened.
The child was awake, but did not know his parents or anyone else. This condition only lasts a few minutes, then the child sleeps again. However, this condition can also last a long time.
Since this is not a dream, then the next day the child will not remember the events he experienced. This event usually occurs in the condition of the child who is sick, stressed, lack of sleep, but can also occur without obvious factors.
Insomnia affects the child in the same way that insomnia affects older persons. Like older persons, children can also have trouble sleeping or staying asleep.
Acute cases can be caused by stress or illness, but if insomnia lasts longer than a few months, it may be chronic insomnia.
In milder cases, help children practice good sleep habits. Here are the tips:
- Set limits and be assertive about bedtime.
- Have a regular sleep routine, and maintain it as best you can. The effect is not only on the child-but will also result in a better quality of sleep for everyone in the house.
- Avoid caffeine consumption and reduce sugar intake.
- Keep electronics out of the bedroom, especially for teenagers and children who cannot arrange their use.
- Let the bedroom be quiet, cold and dark.
- Parents can also give gifts to younger children, when they manage to sleep on time.
- For a difficult case, talk to the pediatrician. For some children, consulting a sleep doctor can help. Sometimes, a sleep psychologist will help guide an insomniac child with cognitive behavioral therapy.
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