Placental Abruption is a pregnancy complication in which the placenta detaches from the inner uterine wall before delivery. The release of this placenta can cause the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the baby can decrease or be hampered.
The placenta serves to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the baby, as well as remove metabolic waste from the baby’s body. The placenta is attached to the uterine wall. This organ is also connected to the baby through the umbilical cord.
Placental abruption includes dangerous conditions. In addition to inhibiting the supply of nutrients and oxygen, this condition can also cause the mother to experience severe bleeding. Placental abruption causes many deaths in the mother or baby.
Placental abruption often occurs suddenly. In many cases, the release of the placenta often occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy or a few weeks before the time of delivery arrives.
Placental Abruption Symptoms
Symptoms that often occur in Placental abruption are:
- Uterine bleeding, abnormal uterine contractions, and fetal emergency that can be checked from the fetal heart rate.
- Uterine contractions are very painful.
- Weakness, low blood pressure, fast heart rate, abdominal pain, and back pain.
Abdominal pain and back pain often begin suddenly. Bleeding in the vagi**na can also vary greatly and does not necessarily indicate how far the placenta has separated from the uterus.
Blood may be trapped in the uterus, so it may be invisible bleeding.
In some cases, placental abruption develops slowly, causing mild vagi**nal bleeding that occurs occasionally.
Your baby may not grow as fast as expected, and you may have little amniotic fluid or other complications.
In addition, symptoms may differ depending on the severity of placental abruption (stages I, II, and III):
- Stage I: light bleeding from the vagi**na, mild contractions in the uterus, stable vital signs, and a fixed fetal heart rate. Normal blood clotting time.
- Stage II: moderate bleeding, abnormal contractions, low blood pressure, fetal abnormalities, and abnormalities in blood clotting.
- Stage III: This stage is the heaviest stadium; Symptoms include bleeding and severe contractions, low blood pressure, fetal death, and blood difficult to clot.
There may be signs and symptoms not mentioned above. If you have concerns about certain symptoms, consult a doctor.
Placental Abruption Causes
The cause of placental abruption is not yet known. However, some of the factors below are thought to increase a pregnant woman’s risk of experiencing it:
- High blood pressure during pregnancy that triggers preeclampsia or eclampsia.
- Trauma or injury to the mother’s abdomen, such as accidents, falls, etc.
- Smo**king habits
- Alco**hol consumption.
- Using coca**ine during pregnancy.
- Have chorioamnionitis (infection of the amniotic sac and fluid).
- Amniotic rupture early
- Had suffered from placental abruption in a previous pregnancy, which was not caused by trauma.
- Amniotic fluid ruptures early, which causes leakage of amniotic fluid before the pregnancy ends.
- Amniotic rupture late (prolonged rupture of membranes); It lasts more than 18-24 hours before giving birth.
- Have diabetes.
- Age over 40 during pregnancy or younger than 20 years.
- She is pregnant with more than one baby (pregnant with twins).
Placental Abruption Diagnosis
- Diagnosis of placental abruption can be done through a physical examination. Through this examination, the doctor will ensure the pressure of the uterus, whether soft or hard. But that’s not the only test that can be done. Other tests are with blood tests and ultrasound examinations.
- Through blood tests and ultrasound examinations, it can be known the cause of bleeding. The use of ultrasound with high frequency is usually necessary to find out the condition of the uterus. However, this examination is not always able to ascertain the placental abruption.