Rabies Vaccine: 2 Types, Dosage, and Who Needs It – Rabies is a disease that is transmitted from animal bites that have been infected by viruses. People are at risk of experiencing this disease if bitten by animals that have previously been infected with rabies viruses, such as dogs. The bad news, the disease can be very dangerous, even deadly.
People who are infected with rabies generally do not have severe symptoms, but if left unchecked, it can cause death. Well, one way to prevent such viral infections is with rabies vaccines. So, who needs this vaccine and how does the vaccine protect the body from rabies attacks?
Rabies vaccine is actually possible for anyone. But, people who have a high risk of having rabies are more recommended to be vaccinated. A group of people who are vulnerable to rabies viruses are veterinarians, ranchers, and people who do a lot of direct interaction with animals.
The rabies vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent rabies before or after exposure to the rabies virus. Rabies vaccine works by boosting the immune system in order to avoid or fight rabies viruses. The administration of rabies vaccine must be administered by doctors.
Symptoms of rabies and its handling
Both in humans and animals, rabies attacks the nervous system and causes death within a few days. The symptoms can be preceded by a change in behavior becomes more aggressive, occurring hallucinations, up to muscle stiffness.
Then, in a long time, there will be seizures and impaired consciousness. If such a condition has occurred, it is generally very difficult for the sufferer to heal.
Therefore, if a person is bitten by a dog or other animal that potentially transmit rabies, then the fast handling and prevention of rabies needs to be done. One of them is with the administration of anti-rabies vaccine.
Anti Rabies Vaccine Types
There are two types of anti-rabies vaccine:
Anti-Rabies vaccine (VAR)
VAR is an anti-rabies drug that works by stimulating the body’s immune system to form immunity against rabies viruses.
In people needing VAR, the doctor will inject this vaccine in as many as two injections; One injection in the right arm and one injection in the left arm. Then, the VAR injections will be repeated again one and two weeks later.
Anti-Rabies Serum (SAR)
In different ways it works with VAR, SAR is useful to neutralize the rabies toxin that enters immediately after someone is bitten by a dog. The SAR is generally given only once by means of being injected around a dog bite wound.
Each person’s dose must vary. Be sure to always consult a physician before using the vaccine.
Intramuscular (through muscle)
Prevention before exposure to rabies virus
- Older persons: Primary Immunization: 1 ml on Day 0, 7, and 28 (third dose can be administered on the 21st day if necessary).
- Strengthening dose: People who are mildly or sustained risk: 1 ml administered after 1 year of primary immunization, then administered again 1 ml every 3-5 years.
- People who are at risk of intermittent (paused): The dose is given as per official recommendation.
- Children: Same as older person’s dose
Intramuscular (through muscle)
Prevention after exposure to rabies virus
- Older persons: a person who is not immunized or immunized is incomplete: 1 ml on day 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Alternatively, the fifth dose can be administered on the 30th day.
- The people who are fully immunized: 1 ml on day 0 and 3.
- Child: Same as older persons
Who needs rabies vaccine?
Actually, this vaccine can be done by anyone. However, the person who is encouraged to do rabies vaccine is a person who is at high risk of being infected by the virus.
The group of people are veterinarians, animal farmers, laboratory workers or animal-related researchers, and other professions that make direct contact with animals.
If you are one of the risks of being infected with rabies viruses, you should immediately do the vaccine. Because, rabies virus infection has caused at least 95,000 people die annually, according to the World Health Organization data.