22 Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of

By | March 25, 2020
Respiratory Diseases

Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of – There are many diseases that can cause respiratory problems. When breathing is problematic, the body will have difficulties in obtaining oxygen and removing carbon dioxide waste substances. This disorder can certainly interfere with the performance of various body organs.

The human respiratory system consists of the nose, mouth, sinus cavity, throat, larynx (sound cord box), trachea, bronchi, and lungs. In addition, there are also blood vessels, diaphragm, respiratory muscles, pleural (lung membranes), rib, and alveoli or small air sacs.

All parts of the respiratory system work together to ensure a smooth breathing process. The aim is to bring oxygen throughout the body, dispose of the carbon dioxide, and maintain the acid-base balance (pH) of the body.

However, the respiratory system can sometimes be disturbed and cause breathing difficulty. This disorder can occur due to various kinds of things, such as exposure to ciga**rette smoke, air pollution, allergic or allergen substances, toxic substances, accidents, genetic factors, to certain diseases.

Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of

Here are The Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of:

Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a respiratory tract disease that occurs due to inhalation of asbestos fibers, in which the lungs are formed by a wide scar tissue.

Asbestos consists of mineral silicate fibers with different chemical compositions. If sucked, asbestos fibers settle inside in the lungs, causing scarring. Inhalation of asbestos may also cause thickening of the pleura (the membrane lining the lungs).

Causes

Inhaling asbestos fibers can lead to the formation of scarring (fibrosis) in the lungs. The lung tissue that makes up the fibrosis cannot expand and disflate as it should be. The severity of the disease depends on the length of exposure and the amount of fiber inhalation.

Asbestos exposure can be found in the mining and grinding, construction and other industries. Exposure to the family of asbestos workers can also occur from particles carried into the house in a worker’s garment.

Diseases caused by asbestos include:

Pleural plaque (classification), Malignant mesothelioma, pleural effusion.

Healing

Supportive treatment to address the symptoms that arise is to remove mucus or phlegm from the lungs through the procedure of postural drainage, chest percussion and vibration.

Given spray medication to dilute mucus. It may be necessary to provide oxygen, either through the face mask or through the plastic hose installed in the nostril.

A lung transplant is sometimes done. Mesothelioma is fatal, chemotherapy is not much beneficial and the removal of tumors does not cure cancer.

Prevention

Asbestosis can be prevented by reducing asbestos fiber and dust levels in the working environment. Because the industries that use asbestos are already doing dust control, nowadays fewer are suffering from asbestosis, but mesotheliomas still occur in people who have been exposed to 40 years ago.

To reduce the risk of lung cancer, to workers associated with asbestos, it is recommended to quit smo**king. Meanwhile, in order to avoid the source of the disease that will spread to the family, it is advisable for every worker to wash his or her working clothes in the factory, and replace them with clean clothes to return home. So that all the work clothes, no one is taken home, and the worker cleans themselves or bathing before returning to their home.

Asthma

Asthma is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

Asthma is a long-term type of disease that attacks the respiratory tract. This condition occurs due to inflammation and airway narrowing and causing tightness or difficulty breathing. Symptoms of this disease can arise due to several things, such as dust, animal fur, ciga**rette smoke, gas, sharp odor, stress, cold air, to fatigue.

Recurrence of asthma is characterized by the symptoms of shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and wheezing. This disease should be wary, especially in the event of severe asthma attacks or asthmatic status. This attack usually does not improve, even after administration of drugs. If experiencing this, then the people need to immediate first aid to secure the airway.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the throat (bronchi) (the airways in the lungs).

The disease is usually mild and will eventually heal perfectly. But in patients with chronic illness (such as heart disease or lung disease) and in the elderly, bronchitis can be serious.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air bag in one or both of the lungs. They can be filled with liquids or pus that can cause coughing with phlegm, fever, chills, and breathing difficulties. Pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

Read also: Water in lungs: The causes, symptoms, How to prevent and Treat it

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

If it has gone into the body, this bacterium will attack the lungs and bring up the spots on the alveolus wall.

These spots that make the process of oxygen travel become obstructed.

Respiratory infections

Respiratory infections is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

Bacteria, viruses, and other micro-organisms can cause infections in various respiratory organs. The cold or flu, usually affects the upper parts of the respiration system; From the nose to the larynx.

Flu viruses can also cause irritation and swelling in the larynx, trachea, and Bronki. The cilia located along the trachea and the bronchi are also potentially damaged. However, cilia usually heal quickly.

Influenza

The next type of respiratory disease is influenza. Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases.

The disease is caused by a virus and it is very contagious. The transmission can also be through many ways such as direct contact with the sufferer.

Usually when the flu strikes, the nose will be filled with white mucus, which makes the sufferer difficult to breathe.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

COPD lung disease is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

COPD is a term that describes two pulmonary disorders, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Both diseases attack the lungs in different ways.

Emphysema damages the walls of alveolus, air sacs in the lungs. When the alveoli are damaged, the lungs’ ability to take oxygen and release carbon dioxide are interrupted. Well, it will certainly affect the supply of oxygen to other body tissues.

Meanwhile, chronic bronchitis is the cause of inflammation and irritation of the airway wall. As a result, the airway wall will thicken because of the production of excessive mucous, stiff, and make you become difficult to breathe.

Many patients experience these two conditions at the same time. COPD is a progressive disease, which can make the patient’s condition deteriorating as time goes by.

Emphysema

Emphysema is one of respiratory diseases that is characterized by the inflammation of the lungs. This occurs because the air enters the blood vessels. Emphysema occurs as a result of loss of alveolus elasticity. Emphysema conditions make the sufferer difficult to breathe.

As for the cause of loss of elasticity in the lungs is influenced by ciga**rette smoke and the deficiency of alpha 1 antitrypsin enzyme. In patients, the impact on the body to be perceived is a chronic cough and shortness of breath.

Symptoms include: decreased appetite accompanied by weight loss, chronic and long lasting cough, easily tired, tightness in the chest and feels heavy shortness of breath in a long time and cannot be cured with lozenges.

While to prevent this disease, here are some things you can do:

  • If the sufferer is a smo**ker, then stop this bad habit to be able to help prevent this condition from deteriorating.
  • If emphysema has already spread through the body, stop the habit of smo**king to prevent disease progression.
  • Treatment will generally be based on symptoms that occur, whether the symptoms are mild, heavy or moderate.

Treatment usually includes the use of inhaler, drug  administration also with surgery to relieve symptoms and prevent the occurrence of complications that will spread to the whole body.

Pharyngitis

Pharyngitis is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

The next type of disease that can disrupt the respiratory tract system is pharyngitis. Pharyngitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the throat. This disease can occur because of infected bacteria and viruses. The bacteria in question is the cause of Streptococcus pharyngitis. You should also know that  smo**king can be the cause of inflammation of the throat.

Therefore, quitting smo**king can be one way to prevent this disease. This type of disease in the respiratory tract system or the disease of pharyngitis can be transmitted by other family members. However, this disease will usually disappear on its own.

Asphyxia or asphyxiation

Respiratory disorders at the time of transport and the use of oxygen by tissues, due to drowning, pneumonia and poisoning.

Tonsils / Adenoid

Tonsillitis is swelling of the gland found in the pharynx tract caused by bacteria, resulting in narrowing of the respiratory tract.

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

Sinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the upper part of the nasal cavity or the paranasalis sinus. Sinusitis is caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, decreased immune, flu, stress, ciga**rette addiction, and dental infections.

Here are some of the symptoms that can be identified with someone suffering from sinusitis.

  • Nasal congestion and feeling amused or itchy.
  • Unpleasant smell in the nose when breathing.
  • Often sneezes.
  • The nose secretes a viscous white or yellowish thick.
  • The head is painful as there is a pressing.

Sinusitis diseases can be prevented by always maintaining body resistance, eliminating smo**king habits, and increasing consumption of fruits.

Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis is an abnormal destruction and dilation of a large respiratory tract.

Bronchiectasis is not a single disease, it can occur through various ways and it is a result of some conditions concerning the bronchial walls, either directly or indirectly, that interferes with the defense system. These circumstances may be widespread, or may appear in one or two places.

In particular, bronchiectasis causes enlargement in the medium-sized bronchus, but small-sized bronchus underneath it often form scarring and narrowed tissues. Sometimes bronchiectasis occurs in the larger bronchi, as is the case with Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (a condition caused by the presence of immunological responses to Aspergillus fungi).

Under normal circumstances, the bronchus wall is made up of several layers of thickness and its composition varies widely on each part of the respiratory tract. The inner layer (mucosa) and the area beneath it (submucous) contain cells that protect the respiratory tract and lungs from harmful substances. These cells consist of:

  • Mucous producing cells
  • Cilia, which have vibratory hair to help sweep particles and mucus to the top or out of the respiratory tract.
  • Other cells that play a role in immunity and body defense systems, against organisms and other harmful substances.

The structure of the respiratory tract is formed by elastic fibers, muscles and the cartilage lining, which allows varying the diameter of the respiratory tract as needed. Blood vessels and lymphoid tissues serve as givers of food substances and defense systems for bronchus walls.

In bronchiectasis, the bronchial wall area is damaged and experiences chronic inflammation, wherein the ciliated cells are damaged and the formation of mucus increases. Normal bronchial wall tension is also lost.

The affected areas are wide and limp and form pockets that resemble small balloons. The addition of mucus causes germs to multiply, which often clogs the bronchus and triggers the buildup of infected secretions and then damages the bronchus wall.

Inflammation can extend to small air pockets (alveoli) and cause bronchopneumonia, scar tissue and loss of lung tissue function. In severe cases, scarring and loss of lung blood vessels can injure the heart.

Inflammation and increased blood vessels in the bronchial walls can also cause a blood cough. Blockages in the damaged respiratory tract can cause low levels of oxygen in the blood.

Causes

Chronic cough can be caused by:

  • Respiratory infections,
  • Measles,
  • Pertussis,
  • Adenovirus infection,
  • Bacterial infections e.g. Klebsiella, Staphylococcus or Pseudomonas,
  • Influenza,
  • Tuberculosis,
  • Fungal infections,
  • Mycoplasma infections,
  • Bronchial blockage,
  • Inhaled foreign objects,
  • Enlargement Lymph nodes,
  • Lung tumors,
  • Obstruction by mucus,
  • Inhalation injury,
  • Smoke injury,
  • Gas or toxic particles,
  • Inhale the gastric resin and food particles,
  • Genetic conditions,
  • Cystic Fibrosis,
  • Diskinesia Silia, incl. Kartagener syndrome, Alpha-1-antitripsin deficiency,
  • Immunological disorders,
  • Immunoglobulin deficiency syndrome,
  • White blood cell dysfunction,
  • Complement deficiency,
  • Certain autoimmune or hyperimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis.

Other circumstances:

Drug abuse (e.g. hero**in), HIV infection, Young syndrome (obstructive azoospermia), Marfan syndrome.

Treatment

The purpose of treatment is to control infections and the formation of phlegm, relieve respiratory tract blockages and prevent complications. Postural drainage that is carried out regularly every day is part of the treatment to remove phlegm.

A respiratory therapist can teach you how to perform postural drainage and effective cough.

To overcome the infection is often given antibiotics, bronchodilators and expectorants.

Surgical removal of the lungs is done in patients who do not respond to drug administration or in patients with heavy bleeding.

Prevention

  1. Measles and pertussis immunizations in childhood helped to reduce the incidence rate of bronchiectasis.
  2. Periodic influenza vaccines help prevent bronchial damage by flu viruses.
  3. Pneumokokus vaccine helps prevent severe complications from pneumonia pneumokokus.
  4. Taking early antibiotics when infection also prevents bronchiectasis or worsening of the disease.
  5. Treatment with immunoglobulin in immunoglobulin deficiency syndrome prevents repeated infections that have been complicit.
  6. The use of appropriate anti-inflammatory (such as corticosteroids), especially in patients with allergic aspergillosis, it can prevent bronchial damage that will cause bronchiectasis.
  7. Avoiding toxic air, smoke (including ciga**rette smoke) and harmful powders (such as powder or silica) also prevent bronchiectasis or reduce the severity of the disease.
  8. The entry of foreign objects to the respiratory tract can be prevented by: Pay attention to what the child has put into his mouth, Avoid excess doses of drugs and alco**hol, seek medical treatment for neurological symptoms (such as decreased consciousness) or gastrointestinal tract symptoms (such as regurgitation or cough after eating).
  9. Drops of oil or mineral drops for the mouth or nose should not be used before bed as it can enter into the lungs.
  10. Bronchoscopy can be used to find and treat bronchial blockages before the onset of severe damage.

Rhinitis

The cause of the disease is the presence of inflammation occurring in the nasal cavity. The inflammation causes swelling of the nasal cavity and secretes mucus. This inflammation can occur due to allergies to certain objects.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

This respiratory disease is the most dangerous disease. The cancer cells in the lungs will continue to grow uncontrollably and over time will attack the entire body.

One of the triggers of lung cancer is the habit of smo**king. Smo**king can be a trigger for lung cancer as well as damage to the lungs.

Common symptoms of lung cancer are swelling of the face and neck, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, rapid fatigue, cough with phlegm accompanied by blood, headaches with no apparent cause, and sound becomes hoarseness or raucous.

Acidosis

It is the increase in the levels of carbonic acid and bicarbonate acid in the blood, so the breathing is impaired.

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

The disease is caused by obstruction in the pharyngeal cavity or larynx by the mucus produced by diphtheria.

Pleurisy

Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleura (lung membranes). Symptoms of Pleuritis can be pain in the chest aggravated by breathing, and shortness of breath.

Suffocation

It is a disruption in the transport of oxygen (O2) to the body tissues caused by disruption of lung function, blood vessels, or tissues of the body. For example alveoli filled with water because someone drowned.

Whooping cough disease

Whooping cough or also known as pertussis,  is a contagious disease.

Causes

This disease is usually caused by the bacterium Bordetella but not infrequently due to B. Parapertussis.

Treatment

If the illness is severe, the sufferer is usually hospitalized. They are placed in a quiet room and not too bright. Commotion can stimulate cough attacks. Mucus suctioning from the throat can be done.

In severe cases, oxygen is administered directly to the lungs through a hose inserted into the trachea.

To replace the liquid that is lost due to vomiting and because infants usually cannot eat due to cough, it is given fluid through an infusion.

Good nutrition is very important, and preferably food is given in small portions but often.

To eradicate bacteria, it is usually given erythromycin antibiotics.

Prevention

Immunization at the age of 2, 4, 6, and 18 months and 4-6 years. It is hoped that the pertussis will be lower with the given immunization, and the symptoms of the disease will not be as severe if without immunization.

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Respiratory Diseases - COVID-19

COVID-19 is one of Respiratory Diseases That Need to be Wary of.

This viral infection is called COVID-19 and was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019. The Virus is contagious rapidly and has spread to other regions in China and to several countries.

Coronavirus is a collection of viruses that can infect the respiratory system. In many cases, this virus only causes mild respiratory infections, such as flu. However, this virus can also cause severe respiratory infections, such as lung infections (pneumonia), Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

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