Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma: 10 Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis and Test

By | April 5, 2020
Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

The Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma is one type of lung cancer.

There are two main types of lung cancer, namely small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma is one type of NSCLC. The other NSCLC types are adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinomas.

NSCLC is more common than SCLC. Approximately 80-85% of all lung cancers are NSCLC. Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma occupies the second order of the most common NSCLC. This occurs in about 25-30% of all cancer cases. This cancer usually starts to grow on new cells that are in the middle of the lungs.

This condition does not cause any symptoms in the early stages. That is why, these cancers are usually newly diagnosed after spreading to other parts of the body. This is obviously an individual concern, because early detection is key to getting better results from the treatment. 

If a new disease is diagnosed after entering an advanced stage, the patient’s life opportunity in five years is less than 20%.

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor derived from bronchial epithelium or bronchial carcinoma (bronchogenic carcinoma).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), lung cancer is a major cause of death in the cancer group in both men and women, in the broad sense of lung cancer is all diseases of malignancy in the lungs, includes malignancies derived from the lungs themselves as well as malignancies from the outside of the lungs (metastasis of the lung tumor).

Approx. 1/3 of cancer deaths in males, apparently due to lung cancer, and in females higher in frequency where it ranks 3rd in the cause of death. Almost 30% Of all cases of lung cancer is a type of squamous cell carcinoma.

Causes of Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

Causes of squamous cell lung carcinoma include:

  • Smo**king habits
  • Asbestos exposure
  • Radon exposure
  • Exposure to halogen ether
  • Chronic interstitial pneumonitis
  • Exposure to inorganic arsenic
  • Exposure to radioisotopes
  • Atmospheric pollution
  • Chromium, Nickel exposure
  • Exposure to vinyl chloride

Genetic factors are also thought to be instrumental in increasing the risk of squamous cell lung carcinoma.

Signs and symptoms of squamous cell lung carcinoma

Signs and symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs usually include:

  • Persistent cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Cough Blood
  • Fatigue
  • Discomfort when swallowing
  • Chest Pain
  • Fever
  • Hoarseness.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Inexplicable weight loss of more than 5 percent over a period of six to 12 months.

Read also: Early Signs Of Lung Cancer That You Should Beware Of

Diagnosis and Test

Your doctor may suspect lung cancer based on

  • Your symptoms
  • Your smo**king History
  • Do you live with smo**kers?
  • Your exposure to asbestos and other cancer-causing agents.

To find evidence of cancer, your doctor will examine you, pay special attention to your lungs and chest. He will order an imaging test to check your lungs for the masses. In most cases, chest X-rays will be performed first. If the X-ray indicates something suspicious, a CT scan will be performed.

When the scanner moves around you, it takes a lot of pictures. A computer then combines the images. It creates a more granular picture of the lungs, allowing the doctor to confirm the size and location of the masses or tumors.

You may also have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The MRI Scan provides a detailed overview of the body’s organs, but they use radio waves and magnets to create images instead of X-rays.

PET scanning sees the network function rather than anatomy. Lung cancer tends to exhibit intense metabolic activity on PET scans. Some wellness centers offer combined PET-CT scans.

If cancer is suspected based on the image, more tests will be conducted to make a diagnosis, determine the type of cancer, and see if it has spread. These tests may include the following:

Sputum Samples.

Coughing up bloody mucus examined cancer cells.

Biopsy.

Abnormal lung tissue samples are removed and examined under a microscope in the laboratory. If the tissue contains cancer cells, the type of cancer can be determined by the way the cell is visible under the microscope. This tissue is often obtained during bronchoscopy. However, surgery may be necessary to expose the suspicious area.

Bronchoscopy

During this procedure, an instrument such as a tube is passed to the throat and enters the lungs. A camera at the end of the tube allows the doctor to seek cancer. The doctor can throw a small piece of tissue for biopsy.

Mediastinoscopy.

In this procedure, a tube-like instrument is used to biopsy lymph nodes or masses in between the lungs. (This area is called the mediastinum.) The biopsy obtained in this way can diagnose the type of lung cancer and determine whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.

Fine needle aspiration.

With CT scans, suspicious areas can be identified. A small needle is then inserted into the lung or pleura. The needle eliminates a little tissue for inspection in the laboratory. The type of cancer can then be diagnosed.

Thoracentesis.

If there is fluid buildup in the chest (water in the lungs), it can be dried with sterile needles. The fluid is then examined for cancer cells.

Thoracoscopic surgery with video assistance (VAT).

In this procedure, a surgeon inserts a flexible tube with a video camera at the end of the chest through the incision. He was then able to locate cancer in the place between the lungs and chest walls and on the edges of the lungs. Abnormal lung tissue can also be removed for biopsy.

Bone scans and CT scans.

This imaging test can detect lung cancer that has spread to bones, brain, or other body parts.

Occasionally, surgery is performed to remove the tumor first; Diagnosis is done after the tumor has been examined in the laboratory.

Some studies have examined the use of a CT scan to try to diagnose lung cancer earlier. Although CT scan can detect abnormalities in the lungs before causing symptoms, abnormalities are not always the case with cancer. In addition, research has not shown that this type of lung cancer screening improves patient’s prognosis or survival.

After the cancer is diagnosed, it is given a “stage.” The squamous cell lung carcinoma stage reflects the size of the tumor and how far the cancer has spread. Phase I through III is further divided into categories A and B.

  • Stage I tumors are small and have not invaded the tissues or surrounding organs.
  • Stage II and III tumors have invaded surrounding tissues and/or organs and have spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Stage IV tumors have spread beyond the chest.

Read also: Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Characteristics, Death Risk, and Survival Rate

Thank you very much for reading Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma: The Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis and Test, hopefully useful.

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