3 Stages Of Wound Healing, and The Wound Types

By | August 12, 2020
Stages Of Wound Healing

Stages Of Wound Healing, and The Types Of Wound – The wound healing process is a natural recovery response to damaged body tissues. Mild injuries can heal with your own treatment at home, but there are some medical conditions that cause the wound to be hard to heal.

Wounds are injuries involving damage to the body tissues and generally occur in the skin. The skin is the largest organ of the body in humans and plays a role in protecting the body from microbes (viruses, fungi, bacteria). When the skin is injured, germs can easily get into the skin and cause infections.

Puncture, incision, and burning are wound forms. In addition, the former surgical stitches are also classified into wounds. The most common causes of wounds are exposed to sharp objects, falls, hot water scalding, and accidents. The injuries can occur in any part of the body, including the knee.

Types of wounds

In general, the type of wound can be differentiated into 2, based on clean wounds or dirty wounds. There are 7 types of wounds we often experience and you should understand. Here’s an explanation:

Incision wound

This wound is usually caused by contact with sharp objects such as knives. Incisions due to sharp objects cause the skin area to cut and often cause bleeding.

Blisters

Usually blisters occur due to friction with coarse or falling objects. In many cases, these wounds are not dangerous, but often cause pain because the wound reaches many of the nerve endings that are under the skin.

Closed wounds

These wounds occur under the bottom skin’s tissues and often cause blood clots. This condition can occur due to injuries to the broken bone or ligament. These wounds will usually cause bruising wounds, but can be treated with the use of ointments such as Thromboflash.

Bite wound

Wound types and Stages Of Wound Healing

This wound can be caused by tooth bites, such as mosquitoes and humans.

Burns

This condition can occur due to the breakdown of skin tissue due to radiation, thermal, chemical, or electrical.

Vulnus Amputatum

It is a wound that occurs due to the severing of one part of the body or amputation.

Vulnus Perforatum

In this type, the wound penetrates and rips the two sides of the body that are usually caused by sharp weapons such as spears, arrows, or infections that can extend to the passing of serous membranes / epithelial body tissues.

For scar surgery itself is a clean wound because it is done with sterile technique.

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Stages Of Wound Healing

Each wound healing process will occur through 3 dynamic, interconnected and continuous stages and depends on the type and degree of wound. In connection with morphological changes, the stages of wound healing consists of:

Inflammatory phases

The inflammatory phase is the presence of vascular and cellular responses that occur as a result of the need for soft tissues. The goal is to stop bleeding and clear the wound area of foreign objects, dead cells and bacteria to prepare the start of the healing process.

At the beginning of this phase, vascular damage would cause platelet discharge that functioned hemostasis. Platelet will cover the open vascular (clot) and also secrete the “vasoconstriction” substance resulting in vasoconstriction of the capillaries, further occurring an endothelial attachment that will close the blood vessels.

This period only lasts 5-10 minutes, and after that, there will be vasodilation capillary stimulation of sensory nerves (local sensory nerve ending), local reflex action, and the presence of vasodilator substances: histamine, serotonin and cytochrome.

Histamine except cause vasodilation also results in increased venous permeability, resulting in blood plasma fluid coming out of the blood vessels and entering the wound area and clinically occurring tissue edema and local state of the environment is acidosis.

This exudation also results in the migration of leukocytes (mainly neutrophils) to extra vascular. The neutrophils function is the conduct of phagocytosis of foreign objects and bacteria in the wound area for 3 days and will then be replaced by macrophage cells that are larger in contrast to the neutrophils in the wound healing process. Macrophage functions besides phagocytosis are:

  • Collagen synthesis
  • Formation of granulation tissue together with fibroblasts
  • Producing growth factor that plays a role in re-epithelization
  • Formation of new capillary vessels or angiogenesis.

With the success achieved clean wounds, no infections or germs and the formation of macrophages and fibroblasts, this condition can be used as a guideline / parameter that the inflammatory phase is characterized by the presence of: erythema, warm on the skin, edema and pain that lasted until day 3 or day 4.

Proliferation phase

Proliferation phase is one Stages Of Wound Healing, and it is the second phase.

The proliferation phase lasts from the end of the inflammatory phase (usually 3rd to 4th days after a wound) until the end of the 3rd week on primary wound healing.

The main process in this phase is the formation of a new tissue to fill the wound space. The cells that are instrumental in this phase are fibroblasts.

Therefore, this phase is referred to as the Fibroplasia phase because it is a prominent process of fibroblast proliferation.

The proliferation phase is characterized by the presence of inflammatory mononuclear cells, followed by the formation of a granulation tissue and the proliferation of fibroblasts and Keratinocytes.

In this phase, the wound is filled with inflammatory cells, fibroblasts and collagen form a reddish-colored tissue with a smooth surface of the granulation tissue. This process just stops after the epithelium touches each other and closes the entire wound surface. When the surface of the wound is closed, the process of fibroplasia with the formation of wound granulation tissue will stop.

The progress in this phase is the continuous accumulation of collagen and fibroblast proliferation. Collagen synthesis reaches its peak on the 5th to 7th day.

The Maturation phase

This phase is the last phase of Stages Of Wound Healing. In this phase re-occurrence of excessive tissue absorption, scraping and until finally similarity of tissue occurs in the wound area. The duration of this phase is also not necessarily because adjusted to the wound level. Whether the wound is mild, moderate or even severe. This phase is stated to end when inflammation has disappeared and all the signs such as swelling, pain and others have disappeared as well.

Later, the body will naturally try to restore everything to be available during the wound healing process. Excessive production of fluids will be absorbed, as well as inflammation cells. The young cells will become mature and excessive collagen will be absorbed.

In this period, there will be scarring that appears pale, thin and will be easily moved from the base. There is also a maximum wrinkle on wounds. This change in skin is able to withstand the strain of about 80%, it is a normal skin capability. During this time, the new skin tissue was slowly formed and became a powerful healer and the wound would heal.

Thank you very much for reading Stages Of Wound Healing, and The Types Of Wound, hopefully useful.

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