What is Zoonosis? Definition and 3 Types Based on The Agent Causes

By | May 13, 2020
What is Zoonosis

Talking about Covid-19, which is now a global pandemic, many terms are increasingly familiar to the public. Zoonosis is one of them.

Covid-19 is a disease arising from zoonosis. Similarly, some other diseases such as PES, Rabies, SARS, also MERS. What is Zoonosis?

What is Zoonosis?

Zoonosis is a disease caused by viruses or bacteria transmitted from animals to humans.

Zoonotic disease has a high prevalence worldwide. This disease can be caused by viruses, bacteria, as well as parasites or fungi and can cause severe illness conditions even death.

The study proved about 60 percent of the world’s disease caused by a zoonosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mentions as many as 3 of the 4 new Infectious Diseases (Infectious Emerging Disease / IED) derived from animals.

Types of zoonotic diseases

After knowing what is zoonosis, there are 3 types of zoonotic diseases based on the agent cause:

Zoonosis caused by viruses


Rabies (Mad Dog disease) is an infectious disease that attacks the central nervous system, especially infections through dog and cat bites. The disease is caused by a Lyssa virus from the Rhabdoviridae family.


Coronavirus has many types, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and Coronavirus.

SARS-CoV is derived from bats and weasel which when consumed by humans can cause respiratory distress. Then, MERS-CoV can also be transmitted by contact or consuming camel or bat.

And recently, the Coronavirus Novel originally derived from the consumption of wild animals such as snakes and bats. Coronavirus can cause pneumonia with symptoms of cough with phlegm, fever, and breathing difficulties.

Read also: Lung Conditions of COVID-19 Patient

Dengue fever, malaria, and Chikungunya

These three diseases are zoonotic diseases that are transmitted by virus or parasitic carrier mosquitoes. These microorganisms transferred to humans through mosquito bites. When humans are infected, symptoms may arise in the form of fever, vomiting, and headaches. This condition should get treatment immediately, because if unchecked, it could endanger lives.

Read also: How To Prevent Dengue Fever

Inflammation of the brain or Japanese encephalitis

Viral infections of the central nervous system caused by mosquito bites with pig intermediates. This type has an initial complaint of fever, headache, decreased consciousness, tremor, and convulsions. Advanced complaints can cause muscle stiffness, abnormal breath until coma. Incubation period 4-14 days with seven weeks of healing period.

Zoonosis caused by parasites


What is Zoonosis - Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by a single-cell protozoan parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii. The disease raises serious encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) as well as death, miscarriage, and congenital defects in the fetus or infant.

Toxoplasma gondii can be distinguished in 3 forms, namely Trofozoite, cyst, and oocytes and can be transmitted in various types of animals.

Anisakiasis (worms in raw fish)

Anisakiasis is an infection that occurs with sea fish Anisakis (Anisakis simplex). People can become infected when they swallow a worm (larva) found in raw fish or immature fish and usually it is present in sushi, sashimi, ceviche and pickled herring.

The usual symptoms occur if the virus infected are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. If the larvae continue to the intestines, then this should immediately obtain treatment.

This Larva can be killed when cooking fish with a temperature of 140 º F (60 º C) for 10 minutes, doing fish freezing with a temperature of – 4 º F (-20 º C) at least within 7 days or you can also make a freezing with a higher temperature – 31 º F (-35 º C) for 15 hours.

Zoonosis caused by bacteria


Brucellosis is one of zoonotic diseases, mainly through direct contact with infected animals, drinking milk from infected animals, and breathing in air contaminated by the cause of Brucellosis, a Brucella sp.


Anaplasmosis is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to people through lice bites. Usually this is called Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and has recently been referred to as human-granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). These symptoms include fever, headache, chills and muscle aches. These anaplasmosis can be treated using antibiotics.

Thank you very much for reading What is Zoonosis? Definition and 3 Types Based on The Agent Causes, hopefully useful.

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