The corpus callosum is a large channel of nerve fibers that connects the left brain and right brain. Being a communication pathway between two sides of the brain, there are at least more than 200 million axons (nerve fibers) in this network.
Neither the absence nor imperfections in this tissue can trigger a condition called agenesis corpus callosum (ACC). ACC can affect physical function, cognitive, social ability, and child development process.
What is Agenesis Corpus Callosum?
Agenesis Corpus Callosum (ACC) is an abnormality in the form of the unformed corpus callosum.
This condition is quite rare because it is only experienced by 1 to 7 out of 4,000 births.
If the corpus callosum is not formed, then the integration of sensory and motor information from both sides of the body will be disrupted, thus affecting the function of social intelligence and language.
Types of agenesis of the corpus callosum
Agenesis Corpus callosum appears at birth. If your child is born with this condition, they can survive. However, this causes a variety of problems during their lives. Some of the following conditions are types of agencies Corpus callosum:
- Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
- Agenesis Corpus callosum Hypogenesis
- Agenesis Corpus callosum Hypoplasia
- Agenesis Corpus callosum Dysgenesis.
Causes and Risk Factors
Agenesis corpus callosum is caused by various process disorders during brain formation, which are affected by various genetic mutations.
Since the cause of this disorder has occurred since conception, there is no way that can be done to prevent it.
Although it is not yet known exactly what caused ACC. However, there are a number of factors that could potentially be the trigger. Some of these factors include:
- Infections or viruses such as rubella in pregnant women
- Genetic disorders such as Andermann syndrome or Aicardi
- Metabolic disorders caused by alco**hol consumption during pregnancy
- Conditions that prevent the growth of the corpus callosum, such as brain cysts.
Pathogenesis and etiology of disorders
As mentioned above, the development of agenesis can be triggered by heredity, but often the cause of its occurrence cannot be known. This pathology has two clinical syndromes.
In the first case, the patient’s intellectual abilities and motor activity were preserved, and the disease manifested itself as a disorder in the process of sending impulses from the left hemisphere to the right and vice versa. For example, a patient with the right hand is unable to determine the object in his left hand, as this requires the transfer of information from the right hemisphere to the left, where the speech zone is located.
In the second case, along with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the patient suffers from other brain malformations, including disorders in neuronal migration or hydrocephalus. In such cases, the patient suffers from severe seizures, and also lags in mental development..
Agenesis Corpus Callosum Symptoms
In some cases, Agenesis Corpus callosum (ACC) does not cause dramatic symptoms. ACC usually causes developmental delays that can be mild or severe.
For example, Agenesis Corpus callosum causes delays in your child’s motor development, such as walking, sitting or riding a bicycle. This can lead to eating problems and difficulty swallowing.
Weak coordination is also common. Your child may experience speech and language delays in expressive communication. When cognitive weakness may occur, some children with ACC have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of Agenesis Corpus callosum are:
- Vision problems
- Low hearing
- Chronic constipation
- Low muscle tone
- High tolerance to pain
- Difficulty sleeping
- Social immaturity
- Difficult to understand conversations with others
- Difficult to interpret facial expressions
- Difficult to understand social words
- It’s hard to tell which ones are right and wrong
- Difficult to think abstractly
- Obsessive behavior
- Lack of attention
- Easy to fear
- Mental retardation
- Accumulation of fluid in the head (hydrocephalus).
Agenesis Corpus Callosum Treatments
Treatment is carried out according to the symptoms shown. If there is a motor delay, physical therapy can be done, depending on the degree of damage to the brain. When there is hydrocephalus can be treated by the installation of VP shunt to drain fluid from the brain cavity thus lowering the increased pressure on the brain. Genetic counseling may also be beneficial for families with this disorder.
Cognitive, psychosocial, and genetic studies are still ongoing. Until now, the treatment is only in the form of support and controlling symptoms.
- Anti-seizure medications.
- Special education.
- Physical therapy.
- Genetic counseling for parents and families before marriage.
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