Antiphosphosphopid syndrome (APS), also known as Hughes syndrome, is an autoimmune disorder that causes blood to freeze and clot easily. This condition is usually called thick blood.
Under normal conditions, antibodies play a role in fighting infection. However, in antiphospholipid syndrome, antibodies actually act incorrectly of attacking a fatty compound called phospholipids that play a role in the process of blood clotting.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Symptoms
In antiphospholipid syndrome, the immune system produces antibodies that make the blood thicker or easier to clot than normal conditions, so it can risk causing blood clots arteries (arterial thrombosis) and veins. These formed blood clots can result in APS sufferers experiencing:
- Deep vein thrombosis.
- Pulmonary embolism.
- Miscarriages and other pregnancy complications, such as preterm birth, as well as preeclampsia and eclampsia. Women with antiphospholipid syndrome can have repeated miscarriages.
- Heart attacks and strokes, especially those that recur and occur at a younger age, is under the age of 55 for males, and under the age of 65 for females.
- Rashes and sores on the skin.
- Blockage of blood vessels in the eyes, liver, or kidneys.
In addition to causing health problems, PEOPLE with APS often feel symptoms and signs, such as:
- Tingling in the arms and limbs.
- Limp and tired.
- Recurring headaches.
- Visual impairment (double vision).
- Impaired memory.
- Speech disorder.
- Impaired motion and balance.
- Easily bruised due to low platelet cell count.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Risk Factors
There are several things that can increase the risk of antiphospholipid syndrome, among others:
- Has a history of autoimmune diseases, such as lupus or Sjogren’s syndrome.
- Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, or syphilis.
- Taking certain medications, such as amoxicillin antibiotics.
- Has a family history with a history of Antiphospholipid syndrome.
- She’s pregnant.
- Smo**king habits.
- Have high cholesterol.
- Sit or sleep for a long period of time.
- History of surgery, especially surgery in the limb area.
- Undergoing estrogen replacement therapy or taking birth control pills.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Causes
Antiphospholipid syndrome is caused by the mistaken immune system. In this condition, the body’s immune system makes antibodies that attack phospholipids. Unfortunately, until now the occurrence of this system problem, not known with certainty. There is a strong suspicion that this condition is caused by various factors or conditions, one of which is genetic.
Moreover, there are several types of diseases that usually occur simultaneously with antiphospholipid syndrome, such as:
- Other autoimmune diseases such as lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus/ SLE), immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Sjogren’s syndrome, or autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
- Cancers, among which are cancers of solid organs (e.g. Liver or kidney), leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma.
- Diseases of blood disorders such as myelofibrosis, von Willebrand disease, or certain protein deficiencies (e.g. C protein or S protein).
- Infections such as syphilis, tuberculosis, malaria, HIV, hepatitis A, hepatitis C, varicose veins, measles, and certain bacterial infections.
- Nervous diseases such as Myasthenia Gravis, multiple sclerosis, or migraines.
- Side effects of certain drugs such as chlorpromazine, phenytoin, hydralazine, quinidine, clozapine, or streptomycin.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Diagnosis
Diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome can be upheld if there are symptoms and one laboratory result indicates the presence of this syndrome. The symptoms in question are the presence of blockages of blood vessels or complications of pregnancy experienced repeatedly.
Blockage of blood vessels is proven by radiography examination or Doppler ultrasound examination.
Laboratory results showing the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome:
- High levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipins and beta-2 glycoproteins) at two examinations with a distance of 12 weeks
- Presence of lupus anticoagulants at two examinations with a distance of 12 weeks
If a person has antiphospholipid antibodies, but does not experience symptoms, then it is not diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Complications
Depending on which organs of the body are affected by blood clotting due to APS, this syndrome is a situation that can provide serious health complications if not treated appropriately.
Here are some serious health disorders that can occur due to antiphospholipid syndrome:
- Renal failure
- Heart and vascular problems
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or arterial thrombosis
- Problems in the lungs, such as pulmonary embolism
If a pregnant woman has this syndrome, she is at risk of various pregnancy complications, such as:
- High blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia)
- Premature birth
- The fetus dies in the womb (stillbirth)
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- Video: Internal Medicine