End Stage Renal Disease Definition
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a condition in which the kidneys lose the ability to perform their functions. This condition is very serious, because it can make the quality of life of patients decrease drastically. Many cases of this disease lead to death.
The kidneys are vital organs. Its function is to remove excess waste and fluid from the blood. When the kidneys are no longer able to work properly, waste and fluids will accumulate in the body. This can lead to a number of complications. Among them damage to the heart, blood vessels, and the central nervous system.
Patients with end-stage kidney failure need to undergo regular dialysis. This procedure will take over kidney function. This involves the use of a machine to clean the patient’s blood. Dialysis usually takes about four hours and should be done at least three times a week.
ESRD patients are the right candidates for kidney transplantation. This procedure is a better option than dialysis. However, getting a kidney donor is not easy. Many patients have to wait for several months or even years to get it.
Calculation of the Glomerular Filtration Rate
Before reaching the final stage of kidney failure, people with chronic kidney disease will experience a gradual decline in kidney function. This kidney function can be measured by a glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The details are as follows:
- Stage 1 (GFR above 90), kidney function is still working normally, but early signs of kidney disease may already appear.
- Stage 2 (GFR60–89), kidney function begins to decrease slightly.
- Stage 3 (GFR 30–59), filtering of waste substances from the body has begun to be ineffective, so there are various complaints.
- Stage 4 (GFR 15–29), kidney function is already very low.
- Stage 5 (GFR below 15), the kidneys are barely functioning, so excess waste substances and fluid accumulate in the body.
End Stage Renal Disease Causes
Many kidney failures attack the nephrons, small filtration units in the kidneys.
This leads to poor blood filtration, which eventually leads to end-stage kidney failure.
This condition is most often caused by diabetes and hypertension (high blood pressure).
If a person has diabetes, his body is unable to break down glucose (sugar) properly, so glucose levels in the blood remain high.
Having high levels of glucose in the blood can damage the nephron.
For people with hypertension, increased pressure on small vessels in the kidneys can cause damage.
The damage prevents the blood vessels from performing their blood filtration tasks.
In addition, there are several other causes, including:
- Long-term blockage of the urinary tract by kidney stones, enlarged pros**tate, or certain types of cancer
- Glomerulonephritis, inflammation of the filter in the kidneys (known as glomeruli)
- Vesicoureteral reflux
- Congenital abnormalities
End Stage Renal Disease Symptoms
Main Symptoms of End Stage Disease Symptoms
Many patients do not show any signs while still in the early stages of kidney damage. They begin to notice the symptoms when the kidneys are unable to filter blood efficiently. This makes wastes, fluids, and electrolytes with high levels accumulate in the body. This can cause nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. Other signs include loss of appetite and drastic weight loss.
When the condition worsens, patients may experience heart problems (due to increased potassium levels in the blood) and seizures (when the central nervous system is affected). Other complications include anemia, recurrent infections, and an increased risk of bone fractures.
End Stage Renal Disease Treatment
In people with chronic kidney disease who have entered the final stage, doctors will usually suggest treatment methods that include:
In this procedure, the function of the kidneys to filter the blood will be replaced by a special machine. The dialysis procedure takes about 4 hours and should be done at least 3 times a week.
Another treatment option for people with end-stage chronic kidney disease is a kidney transplant. In this procedure, the patient’s damaged kidneys will be replaced with healthy kidneys from donors. It’s just that the patient has to wait long enough to get a new kidney.
In addition to the above treatment, the doctor will also prescribe drugs, especially to deal with diseases that cause damage to the patient’s kidneys.
The doctor will also suggest special dietary arrangements by limiting the consumption of certain foods and the amount of fluid that comes in. This is because the ability of the kidneys to filter waste substances and excess fluid from the body has been greatly reduced.