In this article, we will discuss about The Definition, Risk Factors, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, adn Phases of Dengue Fever.
The definition of dengue fever
DHF or dengue fever is a disease caused by one of the four dengue viruses. Dengue fever is an easily contagious disease. The means of transmission of dengue fever itself comes from the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus.
Dengue fever risk factor
Dengue fever can be triggered by certain risk factors. Some risk factors for dengue fever:
- Never experienced previous dengue virus infection;
- Stay or travel to the tropics; and
- Babies, children, elderly people, and people with weakened immunity.
Causes of dengue fever
Dengue fever is caused by dengue virus transmitted by Aedes Aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Both mosquitoes can bite in the morning until the afternoon before the evening.
Transmission occurs when mosquitoes bite and suck the blood of a person who has been infected with dengue viruses, when the mosquito is bitten by another person, the virus will be scattered. This happens because mosquitoes serve as a carrier medium of the dengue virus.
Dengue Fever Symptoms
DHF disease should immediately receive medical treatment to avoid side effects. Therefore, both the people with and the family need to know the different symptoms of dengue fever that appears with the symptoms of other diseases, so as not to ignore it. Here are some common symptoms of GHF to know:
Sudden high fever
Fever may often occur in many diseases. However, in dengue fever occurs suddenly and many people do not know the usual fever difference with fever caused by DHF.
The contrasting difference between dengue fever and other fever symptoms is that dengue fever can reach 40 degrees Celsius. Fever that occurs due to flu and infections of viruses or bacteria is usually accompanied by symptoms of sneezing or coughing, while fever symptoms in the DHF are not the case. Fever in DHF can occur for two to seven days.
After fever symptoms occur, the DHF sufferer will experience pain in the muscles and joints. These symptoms are usually accompanied by a chill and sweating body.
Severe headache with pain in the back of the eye
A few hours after having a fever, the next symptoms that will arise are severe headaches. Usually, pain occurs around the forehead. Severe headaches are also accompanied by pain in the back of the eye. This is a common symptom that often occurs.
Nausea and vomiting
In some people, digestive problems can also occur, such as nausea and vomiting. In addition, the abdomen or back feels uncomfortable. These symptoms can occur in two to four days.
Fever accompanied by muscle aches and digestive problems that occur in the DHF sufferer can decrease appetite. This certainly causes the body to become tired, due to lack of food intake and weakened immune system.
Dengue Fever Diagnosis
In laboratory examination at the beginning of the Fever phase, a normal amount of white blood cells will be encountered. Then, the amount will decrease during the Fever phase.
The amount of red blood cells at the beginning of the Fever in general will also remain normal. However, the decline is usually found between the third to the seventh day. Therefore, the examination of these red blood cells needs to be repeated.
Note that the increase in red blood cells is always found in dengue fever. It is an indicator of the occurrence of plasma leakage, where the blood cells should be stored. Chest X-ray examination can also be performed to see the leakage of fluid into the chest cavity.
Dengue fever phases
Dengue fever patients typically have 3 phases, ranging from symptoms appearing for the first time to recover. Here are the three phases of the dengue fever:
Fever phase (febrile phase)
In this phase, the patient will experience a high fever of up to 40 º Celsius that lasts for 2-7 days. In addition, patients will also experience several other symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, headache, sore throat, appearing reddish spots on the skin, as well as muscle, bones, and joint pain.
In this phase, the doctor will monitor the number of pieces of blood (platelets), because usually the number of platelets is decreasing rapidly to less than 100,000/microliter of blood. The decrease in the number of platelets occurs in a short time, i.e. 2-3 days.
After passing through the fever phase, many patients felt that as he had recovered his body temperature began to decrease. In fact, this is precisely the most dangerous phase of dengue fever, because it could possibly occur bleeding and leakage of blood plasma will cause shock and potentially life-threatening.
The critical phase can occur 3-7 days since fever and lasts for 24-48 hours. In this phase, the sufferer’s body fluids should be monitored strictly. Patients should not be deficient or excess fluid.
In some cases, patients may experience a drastic shock or decrease in blood pressure, as well as bleeding in the skin, nose, and gums. If not treated immediately, this condition can lead to death.
After passing the critical phase, the patient will enter the recovery phase. This phase will take place 48-72 hours after the critical phase.
In this phase, the fluid coming out of the blood vessels will return into the blood vessels. Therefore, it is very important to keep the incoming fluid from being excessive. Excess fluid in blood vessels can lead to death from heart failure and pulmonary edema.
The level of platelet will increase rapidly until reaching the figure of about 150,000/microliter of blood, until return to normal levels.
Read also: How To Prevent Dengue Fever