Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Definition, 5 Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

By | March 31, 2020
Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Definition

Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) also known as TB is a lung disease due to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis germs. TUBERCULOSIS will cause symptoms of a long-lasting cough (more than 3 weeks), usually with phlegm, and sometimes bleeding.

TB germs don’t only attack the lungs, but can also attack bones, intestines, or glands. The disease is transmitted from the splashing of the saliva, when talking, coughing, or sneezing. This disease is more susceptible to someone whose immune is low, for example people with HIV.

Tuberculosis causes

The cause of tuberculosis is the bacterium that spreads in the air through the spray of saliva from a cough or sneezing with TB. The name of TB bacteria is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here are some groups of people who have a higher risk of contracting TB:

  • The man whose immune system of the body was decreased. For example, diabetes, people undergoing chemotherapy or HIV/AIDS treatment.
  • People who have malnourishment or nutritional deficiencies.
  • Drug addicts.
  • Smo**kers.
  • The medical officers are often associated with TB sufferer.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis symptoms

In addition to causing symptoms of long-lasting cough, TUBERCULOSIS sufferers will also experience any other symptoms, such as:

  • Fever
  • Limp
  • Weight loss
  • No appetite
  • Chest Pain
  • Night Sweats.

The TB bacteria may be inactive when entering the body, but as time goes by, it eventually leads to the emergence of TB symptoms. In this case, the condition is known as latent tuberculosis. While TB directly triggers the symptom known as active tuberculosis.

How pulmonary tuberculosis spread

TB transmission generally occurs through the air. When active TUBERCULOSIS sufferers splashing mucus or phlegm when coughing or sneezing, the TB bacteria will come out through the mucus and carried into the air. Furthermore, TB bacteria will enter the body of another person through the air they breathe.

TUBERCULOSIS disease is not transmitted through physical contact (like shaking hands) or touching equipment that has contaminated TB bacteria. In addition, the sharing of food or beverages with tuberculosis sufferers also does not cause a person to be infected with the disease.

When coughing or sneezing, TUBERCULOSIS sufferers can spread the germs found in phlegm into the air. In a single cough, TB sufferers can secrete about 3000 sputum splashes.

TB bacteria that are in the air can last for hours, especially if the room is dark and humid, before it is finally inhaled by others. Generally the transmission occurs in a room where the sputum splash is in a long time.

People who are at high risk of being exposed to TB are those who often meet or dwell in the same place as TB sufferers, such as family, friends, or classmates.

However, the transmission of TB is essentially not as easy as imagined. Not all people who breathe air containing TB bacteria will directly suffer from TUBERCULOSIS.

In most cases, these inhaled bacteria will dwell in the lungs without causing illness or infecting others. The bacteria remain in the body while waiting for the right moment to infect, which is when the immune system is weak.

Treatment of tuberculosis disease

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a treatable and cured disease. 

The treatment of TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Effective TB treatment is difficult due to the structure and chemical composition of the cell wall of the unusual mycobacteria. Cell walls hold the drug on, causing antibiotics to be ineffective.

The two types of antibiotics commonly used are isoniazid and rifampicin, and the treatment may take months.

Latent TB treatment usually uses a single antibiotic. Active TB disease should be treated with a combination of several antibiotics to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Patients with latent infections were also treated to prevent the emergence of active TB in subsequent life.

WHO recommends directly observed therapy or direct monitoring therapy, where a health monitor supervises the sufferer. The goal is to reduce the number of sufferers who do not take the anti-biological drugs properly. 

Evidence that supports direct supervision therapy is independently less good. However, the method of reminding the sufferer that the treatment is important turns out effective

Tuberculosis prevention

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Prevention

Pulmonary tuberculosis disease can be healed and prevented. Prevention can start from maintaining self-hygiene, environment and familiarize yourself with a healthy lifestyle.

If one family is affected by tuberculosis to be treated immediately, so as not to be transmitted to other family members.

Attempts to prevent and control tuberculosis depend on infant vaccination and detection and treatment of active cases. The World Health Organization (WHO) has successfully achieved a number of successes with a completed treatment regimen, and there has been a small decline in the number of cases.

Read also: Water in lungs: The causes, symptoms, How to prevent and Treat it

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