Romberg Test: Definition, Benefit, and Steps – Coordination is the normal use of motor, sensory, and synergistic factors in performing movements. It is a coordination centre, but the disruption does not necessarily indicate interference from the cerebellum. Coordination disorders can also be caused by dysfunction of the motor system (muscle weakness), extrapyramidal system, pyramidal system, tonus disorders, sensory systems, vestibular systems, even psychomotor disorders such as hysteria can cause symptoms of hysteria.
Coordination examination is divided into 2, namely equilibrium examination (including Romberg and tandem walking test) and non equilibrium (finger to nose test, nose to finger test, finger to finger test, Dysdiadochokinesia (DDK), rebound phenomenon, past-pointing test, heel to knee test).
Romberg Test Definition
Romberg test is an examination done by standing upright with both feet together not pressing firmly or relaxing, barefoot, hands raised forward, horizontally, parallel to the floor and palms facing up. This examination begins by standing for 1 minute with your eyes open, then staring at a fixed point, and then continuing with your eyes closed.
With this simple test can be known, whether the body is poisoned or there is a degenerative disease.
The Romberg test is a positioning test, to feel the presence of our bodies in nature. In this state, the body needs accurate sensors of healthy joints, muscles and abdominal / spinal functions. By closing our eyes, we are more likely to feel the position of the limbs.
The body is not balanced with eyes closed, is a sign of ataxia, which is a degenerative disease of the motor nerve, due to disorders of the small brain or spine. It can also indicate diabetic neuropathy (peripheral nervous disorder due to diabetes), multiple sclerosis, hearing loss (in the inner ear) or other degenerative diseases. Romberg tests are often used to look at symptoms of poisoning, such as drug use and alco**hol consumption.
The study by Johnson BG, et al. found that this test can also be used as a marker of mild symptoms of mountain sickness. The study was published in the Wilderness & the Environmental Medicine Journal, in 2005.
Go to the doctor immediately, if you fall while doing this test. Especially if accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness or tingling in the legs / hands.
Romberg Test Benefit
Know the balance with closed eyes associated with mild lesions of the sensory, vestibular, or proprioceptive systems.
Romberg Test Steps
Romberg test steps:
- Open the footwear and stand upright with your feet aligned. Hands beside the body.
- First stand with your eyes open for 20 seconds, then close your eyes 20 seconds.
Perform tests in a quiet room, as the sound around can affect the results.
Romberg’s test was carried out by asking the patient to stand with both feet tightened, on the sides and eyes open. Any significant way or tendency to fall is noted. The patient is then asked to close his eyes, leaving it in such a position for 20-30 seconds.
In addition to seeing the appearance of shakes in patients, it is also important to pay attention to the light weight of the shake as well as the position of the onset of shaking (swaying of the hips or ankles throughout the body). It is important to remember, for the safety of the patient, the doctor must be around the patient (can face the patient or his side) with his hands stretched out on both sides of the patient to support (without touching the patient).
Romberg’s test is considered positive if there is a significant imbalance with the eyes closed or the imbalance significantly worsens at the time of closing the eyes (if the imbalance already has with an open eye).proprioception center
As mentioned earlier, the Romberg test is one of the tests carried out to evaluate the function of equilibrium. Central postural control (equilibrium) depends on the input of three peripheral modalities, namely vision, vestibular system, and a coordination proprioception center. Interference in one of the modalities can be compensated by input from the other two systems.
- Image: Gonad, CC BY-SA 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
- Video: Julia Krahm