The hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B vaccine is one type of vaccination that is mandatory in children.
The hepatitis B vaccine contains the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) that has been deactivated. This vaccine works by stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to combat the virus.
Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted over contact by blood or body fluids from people with hepatitis B. Hepatitis B virus that persists and survives in a person’s body can become a chronic disease and cause dangerous complications, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Who needs the hepatitis B vaccine?
Hepatitis B vaccine is needed in infants, children, adolescents, and older persons who have never received the hepatitis B vaccine before. Here’s the explanation:
Infants, children, and adolescents
Babies need to get the first hepatitis B vaccine dose at birth. The dose hepatitis B vaccine dose will usually be complete by the time the baby is 6 months old.
Children and adolescents who are younger than 19 and have never been vaccinated also need to get the hepatitis B vaccine.
Older persons over the age of 18
Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended to be given to older persons at risk of hepatitis B infection, namely:
- People whose partner is people with hepatitis B.
- People who are se**xually active and have over one partner.
- People who are being examined or are receiving treatment for STDs.
- Men who have se**xual contact with other men.
- People who share needles, injections, or other syringe drug equipment.
- People who are in close contact or live with someone affected by the hepatitis B virus.
- Health workers are at risk of developing the patient’s blood or body fluids.
- Residents and officers living in mental health care facilities
- People who are in correctional institutions.
- Victims of se**xual assault or abuse.
- Tourists visiting areas with high hepatitis B rates.
- People with chronic liver disease, kidney disease, HIV infection, hepatitis C infection, or diabetes.
- Anyone who wants to be safe from hepatitis B infection.
Hepatitis B Vaccine Benefits
The hepatitis B vaccine is effective and safe to prevent diseases caused by the hepatitis B virus. WHO recommends all infants be immunized for hepatitis B vaccine immediately after birth, at most 24 hours after birth. The provision of this vaccine is an indicator of the success of immunization programs in a country.
Hepatitis B vaccine protection, according to research can be up to at least 20 years. It is even possible that the vaccine will remain effective for life. For poor and developing countries, WHO urges that immunization be encouraged in accordance with the epidemiological situation of their respective regions.
Diseases related to the hepatitis B virus, especially cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Based on WHO data, cirrhosis of the liver is in the top 20 deadliest diseases worldwide. Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world.
Hepatitis B vaccine is useful to reduce the risk of these diseases. The body will get help from the vaccine to form antibodies to combat the virus that enters the body.
Hepatitis B Vaccine Dose
The best time to administer the first Hepatitis B vaccine is 12 hours after the baby is born, with a vitamin K1 injection at least 30 minutes earlier. Then, the vaccine is given back successively at the age of 2, 3 and 4 months. This vaccine is given four times. For children or adolescents under the age of 19 who have not received this vaccination, it is important to get it immediately.
The dose of Hepatitis B vaccine for the above age category is 0.5 ml. In addition, the dose of older persons who are at high risk of hepatitis B is 1ml.