How Does HIV Affect The Immune System

By | November 3, 2019
How Does HIV Affect The Immune System

How Does HIV Affect The Immune System? HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a type of virus that is transmitted from human to other human beings. Infection by the virus will weaken the immune system, so other diseases are prone to occur and more difficult to heal. In severe cases, HIV infection will cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).

HIV infections have evolved and continue to rise in the world in just over 25 years. Continuous research is conducted in many countries regarding the development of its treatment and vaccine, and many funds have been used in the study, however, fully understanding the immune depletion mechanism is still not possible.

The focus is also on improving the quality of life of people living with HIV & AIDS through education, counseling, and nutritional support. Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a disease caused by a retrovirus, which is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks and damages the body’s natural defense system against diseases and infections.

In people with HIV, viruses can be found in body fluids such as blood, cement, vagi**nal discharge, rectal mucosal lining, and breast milk. Bodily fluids such as sweat, urine, tears, saliva and vomiting generally do not contain HIV, unless it is mixed with blood.

As for things that are risky to increase the occurrence of HIV, among others:

  • Se**xual inter**course without a con**dom
  • Unsterile syringe or syringe using alternates.
  • Pregnancy
  • Childbirth and breastfeeding.

Read also: How do You Get AIDS?

Malnutrition is defined as a “cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body needs to ensure specific growth, maintenance, and function”. 

People who suffer from poor nutrition after contracting HIV will likely become AIDS faster, because the body is weak to fight infections, while a well-nourished person can better cope with the disease. It has been proven that good nutrients increase resistance to infections and disease, increase energy, thereby making one stronger and more productive.

Knowledge of essential nutritional components and putting them into the management of PLHA is essential in improving the quality of life and better survival in HIV-infected patients.

How Does HIV Affect The Immune System?

How Does HIV Affect The Immune System Stages

Here are the stages How Does HIV Affect The Immune System.

  • The first phase of HIV cycle is referred to as acute HIV infection.
  • HIV consists of two elements of RNA and DNA so it has the ability to directly infect human cells and use one of the components on the chromosome to replicate the HIV parts or structures.
  • The human immune system consists of two main types of cells, namely B and T cells. Two types of T cells that are helper and cytotoxic are affected by HIV, thus disrupting the immune system.
  • HIV attacks lymphocytes called T-4 cells or T-Helper cells (T-helpers) commonly referred to as CD-4 cells as well. While AIDS is a collection of symptoms of diseases arising from the decline of the immune system obtained not by heredity, but caused by HIV viruses.

Read also: HIV infection early symptoms

T Helper (CD4) cells serve as a kind of alarm for cytotoxic cells to attack and kill cells in the body infected by the virus.

In fact, the helper cell has been infected by HIV itself, thus making the cytotoxic cell kill the helper cell as one of the important immune system components.

  • This condition makes the immune system of HIV sufferers decrease over time. The infection cycle can last up to 10 years, which the immune system becomes very weak.
  • The sufferer can be sick or even die due to viruses and weak bacteria (not HIV) that under normal conditions can be overcome by the immune system.

These conditions are commonly known as AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

AIDS is a condition where a person’s immune system decreases. If you are already at this stage, a mild illness such as the flu or diarrhea may be deadly.

Read also: How to clear mucus from lungs – Home remedies.

What is the process of HIV virus development in the human body?

First, HIV injects the patient’s cell and releases the ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene, then by the viral RNA enzyme converted into DNA. The infectious enzymes unite the viral DNA into the chromosome of the patient and the infected cell producing a new viral RNA. The newly produced protein combined will then form a new HIV virus and be ready to attack other body cells.

About 1-3 months early in HIV attack is referred to as the ‘ window period. In the second stage or approximately 5-10 years later, as the CD-4 cell decline, the patient will enter the HIV positive stage. Then when a CD-4 cell is below 200 per microliter then the patient enters into the AIDS stage.

Although HIV is not showing any symptoms yet, it is able to transmit to others. Even while it is still in the “window period” stage it has been very potential to transmit HIV.

How Does HIV Affect The Immune System Video

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