Obesity is a chronic condition due to a very high build-up of fat in the body. Obesity occurs because of the intake of more calories than the act of burning calories, so the excess calories accumulate in the form of fat. If the condition occurs for a long time, it will gain weight until it is obese.
The obesity problem is on the rise in the world. This is a big challenge in preventing the growth of chronic diseases in the world. Obesity is also triggered by industrial and economic growth, as well as lifestyle changes, a growing intake of nutrients from processed foods, or a high-calorie diet.
Based on the condition of the cells, obesity can be classified into several types namely:
Hyperplastic type, is overweight that occurs due to the number of cells more than normal conditions, but the size of the cells according to the normal cell size occurs in childhood. Efforts to lose weight to normal conditions in childhood will be more difficult.
This obesity occurs due to the size of the cell is larger than the normal cell size. This type of obesity occurs in adulthood and attempts to lose weight will be easier when compared to hyperplastic types.
Hyperplastic and Hypertrophic Types
This type of obesity occurs because the number and size of cells exceed normal. This type of obesity begins in childhood and continues until after adulthood. Efforts to lose weight in this type is the most difficult, because it can be at risk of complications of diseases, such as degenerative diseases.
Learn more about The Reasons Why I Can’t Lose Weight
Obesity Risk Factors
Risk factors that cause a person to develop obesity are genetic, family lifestyle, inactivity, unhealthy diet, certain medical problems, consumption of certain medications, social and economic problems, age, pregnancy, and lack of sleep.
Obesity occurs when calorie levels enter more than the body needs. This causes energy to become excessive, so it is converted into reserves in the form of fat. In addition, genetic, behavioral and hormonal influences on weight are also one of the causes of obesity.
Obesity can be traced to medical causes, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing syndrome, diseases and other conditions. Even so, this disorder is rare. In general, the main causes of obesity are infrequent activity as well as unhealthy diet and eating habits.
Clinically, obesity can be easily recognized by distinctive signs and symptoms, including a rounded face, chubby cheeks, a double chin, a relatively short neck, an enlarged chest, a bulging abdomen with a folded abdominal wall and both legs generally X-shaped.
To establish the diagnosis, objective measurements with anthropometric and laboratory measurements are required.
Anthropometric measurements are generally based on the following measurement methods:
Measuring weight (BW)
Measuring weight (BW) and its results compared to height (BH) (BW/BH) or percentage of body weight compared to ideal weight (IBW) (BW/IBW x 100%).
Childhood obesity is defined as weight by height (BW/BH) above the percentile of 90 or more than 120% compared to IBW. If BW/IBW is 140% larger then it is categorized as super obese.
This way reflects the proportions or appearance but does not reflect the mass of body fat. Measurement results using this method cannot be used to distinguish the possible causes of more weight, among others because of muscle or because there is edema.
Body mass index (BMI)
Body mass index (BMI) is a useful method for assessing body fat and measured by means of weight (in kilograms) divided by the squares of height (in meters).
The World Health Organization (WHO) in 1997, The National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1998 and The Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services have recommended BMI as a standard measure of obesity in children and adolescents over the age of 2 years (WHO, 2014).
Thank you very much for reading The Obesity Definition, Types, Risk Factors, Causes, and Diagnosis, hopefully useful.