The autonomic nervous system is composed of nerve fibers coming from the brain as well as from the spinal cord and towards the organ in question. In this system, there are several paths and each path form a complex synapses and also forms an ganglion. The nerves found at the base of the ganglion are called pre ganglion nerves and those at the end of the ganglion are called post ganglion nerves.
The autonomic nervous system is a part of the peripheral nervous system that mostly acts independent of conscious control (intentionally) and consists of nerves in the heart muscle, smooth muscles, exocrine and endocrine glands.
Autonomic Nervous System Definition
According to Wikipedia, the autonomic system is the nervous system that represents the nervous system in the motor of the smooth muscle, the heart muscle, and also in glandular cells. This system is also known to the unconscious nervous system.
It does orders or works with us without us knowing. It also moves in an automated way that we do not want through the central nervous(brain) first.
In other words, the autonomic nervous system works without getting our orders first. Examples of this nervous system are changes in the pupils of the eye, beatings in the heart, sweating, digestive movements, and much more.
Autonomic Nervous System Types
The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that have a distinctive arrangement and function.
#1. Sympathetic Nerves
The sympathetic nervous system has nerve nodes or ganglions along the front spine, ranging from the lower neck to the tailbone. Each nerve node is interconnected, so it becomes two rows, namely the left and right rows. Each node is connected by the spinal cord.
The functions of the sympathetic nervous system are as follows.
- Accelerates heart rate.
- Widen the blood vessels.
- Widen the bronchi.
- Increase blood pressure
- Slows down peristaltic motion.
- Widen pupils.
- Inhibits the secretion of bile.
- Lowers saliva secretions.
- Increases the secretion of adrenaline.
The sympathetic nervous system is also called the thoracic nervous system, since the preganglion nerve exits the spine of the 1st to 12th thoracic. This nervous system is in the form of 25 pairs of ganglions or nerve nodes found in the spinal cord. From each node there are nerves leading to the kidneys, lungs, heart, and other organs. Sympathetic nerve functions include constrict the skin of the hair, speeding up heart rate, widening blood vessels, and elevating blood pressure.
#2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
The parasympathetic nervous system is also called the craniosacral nervous system, since the preganglion nerve exits the brain regions and sacred regions. The parasympathetic nervous arrangement is in the form of webs associated with ganglions scattered throughout the body. The nerves go to the organs of the body controlled by a sympathetic nervous arrangement.
The parasympathetic nervous system is in the form of nets interconnected with ganglions scattered throughout the body. Parasympathetic nerve function is the opposite of sympathetic nerve function. Parasympathetic nerve functions include developing hair skin, slowing heart rate, narrowing blood vessels, and lowering blood pressure.
Autonomic Nervous System Functions
The role of the autonomic nervous system is to continuously improve the functions of the organ and organ systems in accordance with the stimuli both internally and externally. The Autonomic nervous system helps to maintain homeostasis (internal stable and balance) through coordination of various activities such as hormones, circulation, respiration, digestion and excretion.
The autonomic nervous system is always ‘on’ and functioning unconsciously, so we are unaware of the important tasks that every wake (and sleep) does every minute and every day.
The autonomic nervous system is part of the system that supplies internal organs, including blood vessels, stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, bladder, lungs, pupils, heart, sweat, saliva and digestive glands. The autonomic nervous system is a nervous system that controls involuntarily movement and regulates bodily functions such as;
- Blood pressure
- Heart rate and breathing
- Body temperature
- Metabolism (thus affecting body weight)
- Water and electron balance (such as sodium and calcium)
- Production of bodily fluids (saliva, sweat, and tears)
- Urinate and bowel movements
- Pupil response, and se**xual arousal.
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