Bladder Cancer: 3 Types, Causes, Symptoms, Stages, and Diagnosis

By | July 21, 2020
Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a condition, when the urothelial cells that line the inside of your bladder, grow abnormally and uncontrollably, thus becoming cancerous cells. Cancer cells that continue to grow, can spread to nearby tissues around the bladder, even to other organs further away. For example, lymph nodes, bones, liver and lungs.

Men have a greater chance of developing this cancer than women, as well as elderly people, although these cancers can also occur in all ages.

Types of Bladder Cancer

The type and treatment of bladder cancer are determined by the cell where the cancer grows. The following are the types of bladder cancer that are distinguished based on the cell type where the cancer grows.

Urothelial carcinoma.

This type is the most common in bladder cancer. This cancer grows on the urothelial cells, which are the cell layers of the bladder.

Squamous cell carcinoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a type of bladder cancer that also grows in urothelial cells of squamous type. Bladder SCC is associated with sustained bladder irritation, for example, due to the use of long-term urine catheters or bladder infections


This type of cancer grows in the cells that make up the mucous gland in the bladder. Cancer cells are formed after the bladder often experiences inflammation.

Cause of Bladder Cancer

The cause of bladder cancer is certainly unknown. But there are some conditions that make a person more susceptible to having bladder cancer, namely:

  • Bladder abnormalities from birth
  • Often experience bladder infections
  • Have experienced radiation in the lower abdomen area
  • Often dehydrated
  • Consume white water containing arsenic chemical substances
  • Those who work in industrial rubber, textile, or paint materials, and often exposed to their chemical substances

Bladder Cancer Symptoms

Some indications that may occur in bladder cancer patients:

  • There is blood mixed with urine (hematuria). Hematuria is usually the most common and earliest symptom of experiencing.
  • Pain during urination.
  • The frequency of urination increased.

Bladder cancer can develop and spread to other parts of the body. At this stage, the symptoms are:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain in the back
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Difficult urination
  • Bone pain
  • Often feel very tired and tired.

Hematuria can lead to bright red urine, but sometimes it does not appear discoloration. In this condition, blood can be detected by urine examination in the laboratory.

Stages of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is also distinguished into several stages depending on the severity and treatment needed. Bladder cancer is divided into 5 stages, starting from stage 0 to stage 4. Here’s an explanation:

Stage 0

It is the first and the lightest stage in bladder cancer. In this stage, cancer has not spread through the lining of the bladder.

Stage 1

At this stage, the cancer has begun to spread past the lining of the bladder. However, cancer has not yet reached the muscle layer in the bladder.

Stage 2

At this stage, the cancer has begun to spread. The muscle layer in the bladder becomes the first part to be attacked.

Stage 3

At Stage 3, cancer has spread to the tissues around the bladder. More serious handling may be needed.

Stage 4

This is the top and worst stage of bladder cancer. At Stage 4, cancer has spread to organs other than the bladder.

Bladder cancer Diagnosis

If the doctor finds a suspicion of bladder cancer during the examination, some advanced examinations will be recommended by the Doctor:

Urine Cytology Test

This examination is performed by sampling the patient’s urine to examine the possibility of malignant cells in urine. Unfortunately, on this examination many bladder cancer sufferers show negative results.

CT Scan

Performed to see the presence of tumors in the bladder. CT scan tests are commonly performed using contrasting substances to color the malignant tumor cells.

Cystoscopy and biopsy

If there is a possibility of cancer through a CT scan or a urine cytology examination, a cystoscopy examination is performed to ensure it. The trick is to insert a kind of camera through the urinary tract to the bladder. If there is a suspicion of cancer, there will be a slight bladder tissue (biopsy) to be examined in the laboratory.

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