The definition of bronchogenic carcinoma or lung cancer can be either metastatic or primary lesions. Malignant tumors can be found in any part of the body. Metastases in the colon and kidneys are malignant tumors most commonly found in the clinic, both can cause pulmonary tumors.
Metastatic pulmonary tumors are often found first before the primary lesions are known. The dangerous thing is on the clinical state of primary lesion’s location is often unknown during the client’s life.
Bronchogenic carcinoma or lung cancer is a primary malignant lung tumor derived from airway or bronchial epithelium. The occurrence of cancer is characterized by abnormal growth of cells, not limited to, and damage to normal tissue cells. The process of malignancy in the bronchial epithelium is preceded by a pre-cancerous period.
The first change occurring in precancerous times is called squamous metaplasia characterized by changes in epithelial form and the disappearance of Cilia.
Bronchogenic Carcinoma Causes
The exact cause of bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer is not known, but prolonged exposure or inhalation of carcinogenic substances is a major contributing factor besides other factors such as immunity, genetics, etc.
Active smo**kers and passive smo**kers have the potential of developing lung cancer because of tobacco smoke contained in cigarettes. There is an estimated metabolite in cigarette smoke that is carcinogenic to the body organ. Carcinogenic substances (cancer triggers) contained in cigarettes are:
- Vinyl chloride
- Benzo (a) pyrenes
Various carcinogens have been identified in the atmosphere, including sulfur, emissions of motor vehicles and pollutants from processing and factories. Evidence suggests that the incidence of lung cancer is greater in urban areas as a result of the buildup of pollution and emissions from motor vehicles.
Exposure to carcinogen substances
Chronic positioning of industrial carcinogens, such as arsenic, asbestos, mustard gas, chromium, oven smoke from cooking, nickel, oil, and radiation has been associated with the occurrence of lung cancer.
Lung cancer due to work.
There is a high incidence of workers exposed to the carbonyl nickel (nickel buster) and arsenic (grass repellent). Hematite (lung – pulmonary) and other people working with asbestos and chromium also increased incidence.
There are changes or mutations of some genes that play a role in lung cancer, namely
- Proto Oncogene,
- Suppressor gene Tumor,
- Gene encoding enzyme.
The occurrence of lung cancer is based on the appearance of tumor suppressor genes in the genome (Onkogen).
The initiator changed the gene suppressor tumor by eliminating (Delasi/del) or insertion (Insersi/INS) part of the base pair, the appearance of the gene erbB1 and neu/erbB2 atu plays a role in anti apoptosis (the cell mechanism to die naturally-Programmed cell death).
Changes in the appearance of genes in this case cause the target cell, in this case the lung cells, to turn into cancer cells with autonomous growth properties.
It is reported that low consumption of beta carotene, Selenium and vitamin A causes high risk of developing lung cancer.
Since the etiology that attacks the branch of a segment or sub Broncus causes the cilia disappear and desquamation resulting in the deposition of carcinogens. With the deposition of carcinogens it causes metaplasia, hyperplasia and dysplasia.
If peripheral lesions caused by metaplasia, hyperplasia and dysplasia penetrate the pleural space, commonly arising pleural effusion, and can be followed direct invasion on the Costa and corpus vertebrae.
The central lesions come from one of the largest bronchi branch. These lesions lead to the ulcer and ulceration of the bronchus followed by suppurations in the distal section.
Symptoms can be cough, hemoptysis, Dispneu, fever, and cold. Unilateral wheezing can be linked to auscultation.
In the advanced stage, weight loss usually indicates the presence of metastases, especially on the liver. Lung cancer can be metastasized to the nearby structures such as lymph glands, esophageal walls, pericardium, brain, and skeletal.
Thank you very much for reading Bronchogenic Carcinoma: The Causes, and Pathophysiology, hopefully useful.