Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatments and Diagnosis – Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs due to impaired function in the ovaries. Usually, the disease attacks a woman who is in a fertile age. PCOS causes the sufferer to experience hormonal imbalances, due to things that are not known for sure.
One of the early signs of this disorder is the irregular period of ovulation or the fertile period in women. In addition, PCOS also causes increased levels of male hormones (androgens) in the female body, as well as the appearance of many cysts on the ovaries. A woman is suspected of having PCOS if she experiences at least two of these early symptoms.
The condition is experienced by 5 to 10 out of 100 women. Unfortunately, only about 30 percent of women with PCOS seek treatment. Whereas in the long run, PCOS can affect fertility and make it difficult for sufferers to get pregnant.
Women with PCOS on average have a larger ovarian size (ovaries) than normal women. This is because the ovaries contain many ovarian follicles that appear to be small cysts with a diameter of between 4-9 mm—and therefore, called polycystic ovary syndrome.
However, these follicles never enlarge, mature, and trigger ovulation or release of the ovum.
What caused it?
Until now, the cause of PCOS is still not clearly known. However, it is suspected that there are several factors that play a role, namely:
- Excess insulin hormone
- Low degree inflammation.
- Genetic or hereditary factors.
- Androgen excess.
If undiagnosed and untreated, in the long run PCOS can cause a variety of complications. Starting from difficulty getting pregnant, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea (stopping breathing during sleep), endometrial cancer (uterine wall), to mental disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders.
How to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome
Before determining which PCOS treatment is best for you, your doctor will first ask for your medical history. The questions can include changes in weight and menstrual cycles during this time.
Later physical examinations include checking for hair growth where it shouldn’t be, excessive acne, and insulin resistance. The growth of fine hair in the body as well as the appearance of acne in PCOS sufferers is caused by the increase of androgen hormones.
If the symptoms appear suspected to be a sign of PCOS, the doctor will proceed with a pelvic examination, blood test and ultrasound to ensure diagnosis
If necessary, you will also undergo screening for symptoms of depression and anxiety, screening for obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, as well as regular blood pressure checks, glucose tolerance, cholesterol levels, and triglyceride levels.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatments
ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) and SOGC (Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada) state that lifestyle modifications such as weight reduction and exercise along with consistent dietary modification reduce the risk of diabetes. This approach is known to be comparable even better than management with drugs and should be considered to be a first-line management for treating women with PCOS.
This modification proved effective for restoring the ovulation cycle and was effective in obese women with PCOS who wanted to get pregnant. Weight reduction in women with PCOS also improves hyperandrogenic appearance. In terms of nutrition, the diet recommended for PCOS patients is a low-calorie and high-fiber diet.
Consumption of carbohydrates, saturated fats and trans fats should be reduced, while the consumption of omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids should be increased.
Drugs are one option of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatments.
Drugs to regulate the menstrual cycle, consisting of:
- Hormone therapy with contraceptive pills, such as: estrogen and progestin daily can restore normal hormonal balance, regulate ovulation, relieve symptoms such as overgrowth of hair. Or gonadotropin to overcome hormonal imbalances and regulate menstruation
- Progestin therapy. Taking progestin for 10 -14 days in one to two months can regulate menstruation more smoothly and protect you from endometrial cancer.
Medications to help you enter the fertile period (ovulation)
- Clomiphene. These anti-estrogen medications are taken at the beginning of your menstrual cycle.
- Letrozole. The drug used in breast cancer can also stimulate the ovaries to work.
- Metformin: The drug is used to treat type 2 diabetes and can also be for PCOS sufferers by elevating insulin levels. In addition, metformin is an additional drug given if the patient does not successfully conceive simply by being given clomiphene.
- Gonadotropin, is a hormone given through injections so that ovulation can run.
Drugs to cope with excessive hair growth
- Birth control pills, this drug can decrease the production of androgens that cause excessive hair growth.
- Taking spironolactone, a drug that can inhibit the work of androgen hormones
- Eflornithine. This cream can slow the growth of facial hair in women.
- Electrolysis. A small needle is inserted into each hair follicle. The needle emits an electric pulse to damage and eventually destroy the follicle.
Surgery is one option of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatments.
Surgery can be an option to increase fertility if other treatments are unsuccessful, including:
- Laser drilling
- Double biopsy.
Thank you very much for reading Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatments and Diagnosis, hopefully useful.
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- Video: Medical Centric.